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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-10th March 2023

UN inks first ‘High Seas Treaty’ in a bid to protect ocean bodies of the world

The United Nations signed the 'High Seas Treaty' to protect the world's oceans located outside national boundaries.

The United Nations(UN) inked the first ‘High Seas Treaty’ in a bid to protect the ocean bodies of the world that lie outside the national boundaries and form almost two-thirds of the world’s oceans.

More About The High Seas Treaty:

The treaty is an outcome of a decade of talks on this environmental concern.

The previous negotiations failed to conclude due to disagreements on funding and fishing rights.

The last international agreement on ocean protection was signed 40 years ago in 1982 – the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.

What is the UN High Seas Treaty:

The treaty will create a new body to manage the conservation of marine life and establish marine protected areas in the high seas. Also referred to as the ‘Paris Agreement for the Ocean’, the treaty to deal with Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ)

The Extent of The UN’s High Seas Treaty:

The UN High Seas Treaty now brings 30 percent of the world’s oceans into the protected domain, puts more money into marine conservation and sets new rules for mining at sea.

Need of the High Seas Treaty:

Previously these water bodies were open for fishing, shipping and to conduct research and only about 1 percent of these waters also known as high seas were under protection which left the marine lives in these waters at high risk of exploitation from threats including climate change, overfishing and shipping traffic.

As per the red data book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), nearly 10 percent of marine species, were found to be at risk of extinction. Further, the IUCN estimates that 41 percent of the threatened species are also affected by climate change.

The Aim of The High Seas Treaty:

The High Seas Treaty now places 30 percent of the world’s international waters into protected areas (MPAs) by 2030.

The treaty aims to protect against potential impacts like deep sea mining. This is the process of collecting minerals from the ocean bed.

The treaty amongst other things will put a restriction on how much fishing can be done on the high seas.

According to the International Seabed Authority that oversees licensing any future activity in the deep seabed will be subject to strict environmental regulations and oversight to ensure that they are carried out sustainably and responsibly.

What Are High Seas:

The ocean surface and the water column beyond the EEZ are referred to as the high seas.

It is considered as “the common heritage of all mankind” and is beyond any national jurisdiction.

States can conduct activities in these areas as long as they are for peaceful purposes, such as transit, marine science, and undersea exploration.

Why is Indonesia moving its capital from Jakarta to Borneo?

Indonesia is all set to move its capital from Jakarta to Borneo over environmental issues such as being congested, sinking into seawater, and being prone to earthquakes.

Indonesia is all set to move its capital from Jakarta to Borneo over environmental issues such as being congested, sinking into seawater, and being prone to earthquakes. Officials said the new metropolis city will be a “sustainable forest city,” that puts the environment at the heart of the development and will be carbon neutral by 2045.

Indonesian President Joko Widodo envisions the construction of the new capital as a “nostrum for the problems in Jakarta, which will also allow the country to start afresh.”

Reason that Indonesia moving its capital:

Jakarta, home to 10 million people has been described as the world’s most rapidly sinking city which is estimated to be completely submerged by 2050.

Officials claimed that the main reason behind moving the capital is uncontrolled groundwater extraction which has been exacerbated by the rising Java Sea due to climate change.

Although it’s just not water issues only, the air is also heavily polluted, and it floods regularly due to clogged roads, and the estimated congestion cost is around $4.5 billion a year.

This prompted the president to plan for a new capital, which he wants to establish as the city of ‘Nusantara,‘ that will allow the construction of government buildings and housing from scratch.

What Will The New Capital Be Like:

Widodo’s plan to establish the city of Nusantara — an old Javanese term meaning “archipelago” — will entail constructing government buildings and housing from scratch. Initial estimates were that over 1.5 million civil servants would be relocated to the city, some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) northeast of Jakarta, though ministries and government agencies are still working to finalize that number.

Bambang Susantono, head of the Nusantara National Capital Authority said that the new capital city will apply the “forest city” concept, with 65% of the area being reforested.

The city is expected to be inaugurated on Aug. 17 next year to coincide with Indonesia’s Independence Day. New capital authorities said that the final stages of the city, however, likely won’t be completed until 2045, marking the nation’s hundredth anniversary.

 What are the concerns raised:

Environmentalists, however, are not happy with the decision and have been raising their concerns as this plan will cause massive deforestation and will pose threat to the habitat of endangered species like orangutans.

An Indonesian non-governmental organisation, Forest Watch Indonesia had in its 2022 report warned that most of the forested areas in the new capital are production forests, which means that they could be permitted for forestry and extractive activities which would cause deforestation.

According to AP, at least five villages with over 100 Balik people are relocating because of the construction.

About the Borneo Island:

It is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. It is home to some of the world’s greatest tropical rainforests. It is politically divided among three countries: Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. Kalimantan is Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo and it comprises 73% of island’s geographic area.

‘Catch the Rain 2023’ campaign to be launched by President Murmu

'Catch the Rain 2023' campaign to launched by Droupadi Murmu: The 'Catch the Rain 2023' campaign was introduced by President Droupadi Murmu with idea of sustainability of drinking water sources.

‘Catch the Rain 2023’ campaign to launched by Droupadi Murmu

The ‘Catch the Rain 2023’ campaign was introduced by President Droupadi Murmu in New Delhi. The campaign’s central idea is the sustainability of drinking water sources. Addressing at the ceremony, the President stated that since India only has 4% of the world’s water resources, water management and conservation are India’s most pressing challenges.

‘Catch the Rain-2023’ campaign: Key Points

President Droupadi Murmu claimed that due to uncontrolled urbanisation, traditional methods of water conservation have been abandoned in the nation.

The President emphasised that these issues—water scarcity and global warming—are consequences of it.

She continued by saying that despite using new technologies, it was vital to maintain and restore old water conservation techniques.

The President awarded the “Swachh Sujal Shakti Samman 2023” under several categories of the Swachh Bharat Mission, including Grameen, Jal Jeevan Mission, and National Water Mission, in recognition of the responsibilities played by women in water conservation and sanitation.

The honours were granted to recognize the grassroots women’s leadership and contribution to the creation of a Swach Sujal Bharat.

International Yoga Festival 2023 Held on Banks of Ganges in Rishikesh

About Swachh Sujal Shakti Ki Abhivyakti

She also unveiled a commemorative stamp and a movie titled “Jal Shakti se Nari Shakti” on the occasion. The President published “Swachh Sujal Shakti Ki Abhivyakti,” a collection of case studies from the National Water Mission, Jal Jeevan Mission, and Swachh Bharat Mission – Grameen.

Addressing at the ceremony, Jal Shakti Minister Gajendra Singh Shekhawat claimed that India has experienced unprecedented success as a result of the Jal Shakti Abhiyan – Catch the Rain under the visionary leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Amrit Kaal, the minister continued, has strengthened the idea of water conservation and is a true revolution in the sector of water.

International Day of Women Judges is observed on March 10

The International Day of Women Judges, which is celebrated every year on March 10, honours all female judges who have taken the lead in the fight against social injustice.

International Day of Women Judges 2023

The International Day of Women Judges, which is celebrated every year on March 10, honours all female judges who have taken the lead in the fight against social injustice. The history and significance of the day are examined below. Not just women judges in international legal institutions should be honoured on this significant day. It serves as a day of symbolism for the fight for gender equality, equal access to opportunities, and the elimination of gender-based discrimination, which persists in all spheres of society.

This International Day of Women Judges is being observed with the campaign “Women in Justice, Women for Justice” to encourage the full and equal participation of women at all levels of the judicial system, to celebrate the accomplishments thus far, and to increase awareness of the challenges that still lie ahead.

International Day of Women Judges: History

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) voted to observe an international day for female judges as a way to recognise the contributions made by female judges around the world to justice, equality, and fairness in society. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) hosted an international conference from February 24–27, 2020, in Doha, Qatar, which is to blame for this development.

The Institute for African Women in Law (IAWL) emphasised the necessity for judiciaries to promote and establish a culture of respect and the enforcement of women’s rights throughout the conference. It was also noted how women in the legal field, particularly female judges, experience sexual harassment and bullying.

The UNGA enacted resolution 75/274 on April 28, 2021, designating March 10 as International Day of Women Judges. On March 10, 2022, the International Day of Women Judges was celebrated for the first time.

Indian Navy conducts major exercise TROPEX-23

The Indian Navy's exercise, called the “Theatre Level Operational Readiness Exercise for 2023” (TROPEX-23), culminated in the Arabian Sea after running for four months from November 2022 to March 2023

The Indian Navy’s exercise, called the “Theatre Level Operational Readiness Exercise for 2023” (TROPEX-23), culminated in the Arabian Sea after running for four months from November 2022 to March 2023. TROPEX-23 witnessed the participation of approximately 70 Indian Navy ships, six submarines and over 75 aircraft.

More About The exercise TROPEX:

TROPEX is being is conducted in many phases to test Navy’s transition from peacetime to hostilities.

In the first phase, the Indian Navy had conducted coastal defence exercise ‘Sea Vigil’ along the entire coastline and Island territories of India on 12-13 January 2021.

This exercise directed to authenticate the coastal defence setup of the country that was completely overhauled after the 26/11 terror attacks at Mumbai.

The exercise witnessed large-scale participation from Indian Navy, Coast Guard, Marine Police of 13 coastal States and Union Territories along with other stakeholders in the maritime domain.

The extent of the exercise TROPEX:

Set in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR), including the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, the exercise extended approximately 4,300 nautical miles north to south upto 35 degrees South and 5,000 nautical miles from the Persian Gulf to the northern coast of Australia, extending over 21 million square nautical miles.

Aim of the exercise TROPEX:

This exercise is being conducted in the Indian Ocean Region and its adjunct water with the aim of testing Indian navy’s warfare preparedness in an intricate multi-faceted plan set in the context of the current geo strategic environment.

This exercise also aims to validate Navy’s offensive-defence capabilities, protect national interests in the maritime domain and encourage stability and peace in the Indian Ocean Region. Naval Headquarters with participation from all three Commands of the Indian Navy and the Tri-Services Command at Port Blair supervises the conduct of TROPEX exercise.

Indian Navy gets first-ever privately made indigenized fuze of Anti-Submarine Warfare rocket

The Indian Navy has received the first fully indigenized fuze YDB-60 for the underwater anti-submarine warfare rocket RGB-60.

In what is being seen as a major success for the “Make in India” initiative in defence sector, the Indian Navy has received a fully indigenised fuze for an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) underwater rocket, manufactured for the first time by a private Indian industry. This would be the first time the Indian Navy has placed a supply order for underwater ammunition fuzes with an Indian private sector industry.

Significance of the procurement:

This marks the first time that the Indian Navy has procured an underwater ammunition fuze from an Indian private manufacturer. It is a major boost for the self-reliance of the Indian defence sector. The use of simulated dynamic trial facilities during the development and manufacturing process is also a noteworthy achievement.

What is a Fuze:

It is part of the weapon or ammunition that initiates its function. In torpedoes, the function is to explode. Fuze may have electronic or mechanical parts. There are different types of fuze namely artillery fuze, hand grenade fuze, aerial bomb fuze, landmine fuze, naval mine fuze, etc. Apart from this, there are time fuze, impact fuze, proximity fuze, barometric fuze, combination fuze, etc.

Initiation of the YDB-60:

The demand for grants to obtain the YDB-60 fuze was placed in the Standing Committee on Defence 2014-15. The demand was placed for both Medium Range Chaff Rocket and also for the RGB-60, the anti-submarine rocket. RGB-60 has received its fuze.

What is RGB-60 (Rocket Guided Bomb model 60):

It is a rocket used to hit submarines. It is 212 mm in diameter and 1830 mm in length. The range of RGB-60 is 300m to 5,500m. It operates with a two-stage motor. It is charged with Torpex. Torpex is a mixture of RDX, aluminium, and TNT. Torpex is mainly used in underwater firings.

India, US to sign memorandum of understanding on semiconductors

The United States and India will sign an MoU on semiconductors as both countries discuss coordination of investment and continue dialogue around policies to spur private investment.

The United States and India will sign a memorandum of understanding on semiconductors as both countries discuss coordination of investment and continue dialogue around policies to spur private investment, U.S. Commerce Secretary Gina Raimondo said. The dialogue comes close on the heels of the launch of the inauguration of the initiative on Critical and Emerging Technology (iCET).

U.S. Commerce Secretary Gina Raimondo’s India Visit:

Raimondo, who is on a four-day trip to India, is accompanied by the chief executive officers of 10 U.S. companies and is scheduled to meet India’s trade minister. The two nations will map the semiconductor supply chain together and identify opportunities for joint ventures and technology partnerships, Raimondo added.

Raimondo said she and Jaishankar launched the India-US Strategic Trade Dialogue at a meeting. On the US side, the dialogue will be led by the under secretary of the Bureau of Industry and Security under the commerce department while the foreign secretary will head it on the Indian side, with the focus on export controls.

US-India Semiconductor Push:

India has been seeking to attract more big-ticket investments under a $10 billion incentive plan for chip and display production, aiming to become a key player in the global supply chain. Last year, the South Asian nation raised fiscal support for new local semiconductor facilities to cover 50% of project costs.

India has launched a production-linked incentive scheme for chips and the US recently unveiled its CHIPS and Science Act to help rebuild its manufacturing and supply chains. Both initiatives have come at a time when India and the US are working to end their dependence on China for chips.

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