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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-10th December 2022

Updated: Dec 11, 2022

72nd Human Rights Day 2022 observed on 10th December

Human Rights Day 2022:

Human Rights Day is celebrated across the world on December 10 every year. It marks the day that the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in 1948. Human Rights Day focuses on the fundamental rights and freedoms that people globally are entitled to simply by virtue of being humans. It celebrates and advocates for rights that cut across the distinctions of nationality, gender, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, religion, or any other status. This year marks the 74th anniversary of the adoption of the UDHR and the 72nd Human Rights Day.

Why is Human Rights Day celebrated?

Human Rights Day is celebrated with the aim of making people aware of their rights. Human rights also include the right to health, economic, social, and education. Human rights are those fundamental natural rights from which human beings cannot be deprived or oppressed on the basis of race, caste, nationality, religion, gender etc.

Human Rights Day 2022: Theme

On December 10, 2023, the world will mark the 75th anniversary of the UDHR. In light of this upcoming milestone, Ahead of this milestone celebration, a year-long campaign will be launched on December 10 this year to showcase the UDHR, emphasising on its legacy, relevance, and activism. The campaign will be centred around the theme, “Dignity, Freedom, and Justice for All.”

Human Rights Day: History

Human Rights Day was formally instituted in 1950 after the UNGA passed resolution 423 (V). Under the resolution, the Assembly had invited all states (members and non-members) and interested organisations to observe this day to celebrate the proclamation of the UDHR and exert increasing efforts in this field of human progress. Over the past decade, Human Rights Day has taken up topics such as discrimination, diversity, education, freedom, poverty, torture, and equality.

Human rights in India:

The Human Rights Act came into force in India on 28 September 1993. After which the government constituted the National Human Rights Commission on October 12, 1993. The Human Rights Commission also works in political, economic, social and cultural fields. Like wages, HIV AIDS, health, child marriage, and women’s rights. The work of the Human Rights Commission is to make more and more people aware.

RBI Signs Currency Swap Agreement with Maldives Monetary Authority

The Reserve Bank of India has signed a Currency Swap Agreement with the Maldives Monetary Authority (MMA) to enable MMA to make drawals in multiple tranches up to a maximum of $200 million from the RBI. This agreement has been signed under the SAARC Currency Swap Framework.

Need Of This Move:

The agreement will provide swap support as a backstop line of funding for short-term foreign exchange liquidity requirements. About Currency Swap Arrangement:

  • The word swap means exchange. A currency swap between two countries is an agreement or contract to exchange currencies with predetermined terms and conditions.

  • In the present context, the facility is to provide swap support as an alternative source of funding for short-term foreign exchange liquidity requirements.

  • Central banks and Governments engage in currency swaps with foreign counterparts to meet short-term foreign exchange liquidity requirements or to ensure adequate foreign currency to avoid the Balance of Payments (BOP) crisis till longer arrangements can be made.

  • These swap operations carry no exchange rate or other market risks as transaction terms are set in advance.

    • Exchange rate risk, also known as currency risk, is the financial risk arising from fluctuations in the value of a base currency against a foreign currency in which a company or individual has assets or obligations.

About RBI’s Framework for Swap Facilities for SAARC:

  • The SAARC currency swap facility came into operation on 15th November, 2012.

  • The RBI can offer a swap arrangement within the overall corpus of USD 2 billion.

  • The swap drawals can be made in US dollar, euro or Indian rupee. The framework provides certain concessions for swap drawals in Indian rupee.

  • The facility will be available to all SAARC member countries, subject to their signing the bilateral swap agreements.

Japan, Britain and Italy to Jointly Build Sixth Generation Fighter Jets

Japan has announced that it will jointly develop its next-generation fighter jet with the United Kingdom and Italy as it looks to expand defense cooperation beyond its traditional ally, the United States. The Mitsubishi F-X fighter jet will replace the aging fleet of F-2s that Japan previously developed with the United States.

More About This Development:

The nations will merge their current plans for development of next-generation planes – the F-X and Britain’s Tempest, a successor to the Eurofighter Typhoon – to produce the new combat aircraft for deployment in 2035. The deal will give Japan greater support in countering China’s growing assertiveness and allow Britain a bigger presence in the Indo-Pacific region.

About This Transition:

The announcement came after Prime Minister Fumio Kishida set spending targets aimed at building up Japan’s military capability, including a huge boost in defense spending over the next five years.

Need Of This Move:

To counter growing threats from China and North Korea, Japan has been expanding its defense partnerships with countries in the Indo-Pacific, including Australia, with Southeast Asian countries and with Europe.

Extent Of This Project:

To meet the five-year spending total of 43 trillion yen (USD 316 billion), the government will need an extra 4 trillion yen (USD 30 billion) in defense spending annually. Of that, a quarter will be funded through tax increases.

Securitization Of The Indo-Pacific Theatre:

The revised national security strategy, is predicted to allow the country to have a pre-emptive strike capability and to deploy long-range missiles.

That’s a major and contentious shift away from Japan’s self-defense only defense policy adopted after its World War II defeat in 1945.

Japan and Australia held 2+2 security talks of their foreign and defense ministers in Tokyo to discuss further deepening military ties after Kishida and Australian Prime Minister Anthony Albanese signed a new bilateral security agreement in October. It covers military, intelligence and cybersecurity cooperation amid China’s growing assertiveness.

Digital Rupee vs UPI, Know the Difference Between eRupee and UPI

Digital Rupee vs UPI

Digital Rupee vs UPI: UPI, in contrast to Digital Rupee, merely serves as an interface for financial transactions involving actual money. The Digital Rupee is only another type of money that is similar to fiat money. UPI and the digital Rupee are entirely separate ideas. With the introduction of the digital rupee, India may be hoping to eventually abandon UPI. The concept is likely to reduce the expense of managing and delivering cash money by depending on the digital rupee. Therefore, the purpose of digital currency is to eventually replace the need for physical money.

Digital Rupee vs UPI: About Digital Rupee

A digital version of paper money is what the term “digital rupee” or “digital currency” refers to. Cash money and the digital rupee have the same value. One digital rupee is equivalent to one rupee in currency, for instance. Simply put, this indicates that, unlike cryptocurrencies, the value of the digital rupee never changes.

Digital Rupee vs UPI: Buying and using Digital Rupee

Users must visit the official app or website of one of the four designated banks in order to purchase a Digital Rupee. The precise procedure for purchasing digital rupee hasn’t been made explicit by the RBI, but it has stated that customers would be able to make purchases using QR codes displayed at merchant locations, and the money will be withdrawn from bank wallets.

One can shop and purchase things at their nearby Kirana outlets using Digital Rupee. The exchange of digital rupees can take place between individuals and businesses.

Digital Rupee vs UPI: About UPI

UPI, in contrast to Digital rupee, merely serves as an interface for financial transactions involving actual money. While one cannot withdraw Digital Rupee from their bank account, it is merely another type of money similar to fiat money. The UPI interface, however, enables consumers to conduct online transactions using their bank account. Fiat money is essentially used for all transactions.

Celebration of “Universal Health Coverage (UHAC) Day 2022” in Varanasi

The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is organizing a two-day convention on the theme “ Universal Health Coverage Day (UHC) 2022” on December 10 and 11, 2022, in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. The two-day event will be inaugurated by the Governor of Uttar Pradesh, Mrs. Anandiben Patel, in the presence of Dr. Mansukh Mandaviya, Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare and Dr. Bharti Praveen Pawar, Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare.

About the conferences:

  • The program will be organized at International Co-operation and Convention Center Rudraksh Hall. Health ministers of different states will participate in the programme.

  • During the event at Varanasi, the 1st Regional Community Health Officers (CHO) Conference for Northern India will be held. Concerned government officials from the medical field from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Uttarakhand will take part in the regional conference.

  • Universal Health Coverage (UHC) aims that ‘all people have access to needed promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative health services, of sufficient quality to be effective, while also ensuring that people do not suffer financial hardship when paying for these services’.

International Universal Health Coverage Day 2022:

It is noteworthy that in the year 2017, the United Nations officially declared 12 December as ” International Universal Health Coverage Day “. This year theme of UHC Day “ Build the World We Want: A Healthy Future for All ” (Creating the World We Want: A Healthy Future for All), underlining the importance and role of health cover in building a healthy future for all.

ISRO will develop “Spatial Data Infrastructure geoportal ‘Geo-Ladakh’ for Ladakh

Ladakh has approached the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), a unit of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) for developing “Spatial Data Infrastructure geoportal ‘Geo-Ladakh’ for UT-Ladakh”. This portal will be used to find, access, distribute & contribute geospatial information and its associated geographic services such as navigation, buffer, measurements analysis, metadata catalogue, map catalogue and more.

The project also aims towards training of UT-Ladakh officials on geospatial techniques and applications. Portal provides geospatial data visualization and analytics for UT-Ladakh, consisting of the spatial viewer, carbon neutrality, geospatial utility mapping and geo-tourism.

An MoU was also signed between IIRS (ISRO) and UT-Ladakh administration on January 1, 2022, towards carrying out the above work. Presently, ISRO is also setting up an optical telescope at Hanle for tracking spacecraft and space objects, the Minister further added.

How is the world benefiting from GIS technology?

  • Smart cities are taking a geographic approach, by using maps and sensors to understand the needs of their communities, allocate essential resources, and streamline operations. GIS has greatly assisted in improving communication through the creation of rich maps and hi-tech communication systems.

  • It has improved communication between different departments, teams, disciplines, professional fields, organizations, and the public. It provides a geographic context allowing people to understand the makeup and needs of communities and deliver more equitable care.

  • GIS has been heavily leaned upon throughout this global pandemic with spatial analysis turning out to be an essential tool. Maps and other platforms were constantly updated to track where people were infected hence giving organizations crucial information about where potential outbreaks were taking place. It eventually helped to slow the pandemic down.

9th World Ayurveda Congress and Arogya Expo 2022 Inaugurated in Goa

The World Ayurveda Congress & Arogya Expo 2022 will be held in Goa from 8-11 December with an objective to provide a global platform to stakeholders, including industry leaders, practitioners, traditional healers, educationists, students, medicine manufacturers, etc. for networking and engaging in intellectual exchange to strengthen the Ayurveda sector, envision its future, and facilitate interaction between professionals and consumers to boost Ayurveda commerce.

The Theme Of This Gathering:

The theme for the 9th World Ayurveda Congress (WAC) this year is ‘Ayurveda For One Health’.

What More Has Been Done:

The third edition of the ‘Ayushman’ comic book series was also released at the event. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between All India Institute of Ayurveda (AIIA) and Rosenberg’s European Academy of Ayurveda, Germany, to facilitate advanced studies in traditional Indian medicine systems.

What Has Been Said:

Addressing the event, Union minister of state for Tourism and Ports, Shipping and Waterways, Shripad Naik said that the spread of Ayurveda worldwide has been facilitated by the setting up of a separate ministry of Ayush by the Centre in 2014. “When one sees the way Ayush is progressing today, one must remember that the seed of this development lies in that decision.”

‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ is the spirit of India since the beginning. In 2015, the United Nations decided to celebrate the International Day of Yoga. Now it is benefiting citizens all over the world. The Ayurveda Congress‘ activities go a long way in propagating such traditional systems of healing and well-being all over the world,“ the minister said.

Its Significance:

The upcoming satellite centre of All India Institute of Ayurveda in Goa will boost Ayurvedic tourism in the state. Goan students will get 50% reservation in admissions for various courses at the institute.

A Dynamic And Growing Market:

According to official data, the AYUSH industry grew 17% year-on-year during 2014-2020, while the Ayurveda market is forecast to grow at 15% CAGR from 2021-2026. The market size of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy) in the country has grown from $3 billion in 2014 to over $18 billion now.

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