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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-16th March 2023

GPT-4, a new generation of AI language model announced by OpenAI

GPT-4, AI language model by OpenAI: GPT4, the most recent release of OpenAI's large language model, which powers popular apps like ChatGPT and the new Bing, has been announced.

GPT-4, AI language model by OpenAI

GPT4, the most recent release of OpenAI’s large language model, which powers popular apps like ChatGPT and the new Bing, has been announced. According to San Francisco-based research company OpenAI, GPT-4 is more advanced than the previous version and has been trained on more data, costing more to operate.

GPT-4, AI language model by OpenAI: Key Points

As per the company GPT4 “can tackle challenging issues with better accuracy” and is “more creative and collaborative than ever before.”

In assignments involving creative and technical writing, GPT-4 can generate, revise, and iterate with users. The new launched model can react to both text and graphics.

GPT-4 may produce analyses, classifications, and captions.

Additionally, GPT-4 can handle 25,000 words of text, allowing for prolonged chats, content creation, and document search and analysis.

According to San Francisco-based, OpenAI, the newly launched model will generate less factually wrong responses.

In fact, the business asserts that GPT-4 outperforms humans on numerous benchmark tests.

For instance, according to OpenAI, GPT-4 scored at the 90th percentile on a mock bar exam, the 93rd percentile on a SAT reading test, and the 89th percentile on a SAT math test.

The corporation is aware of GPT-4’s drawbacks, such as “social biases,” “hallucinations,” and “adversarial cues,” though.

Is GPT4 better than the other versions?

The GPT-4 isn’t a significant improvement over GPT-3.5 and refers to the new edition of its main large language model as being more iterative.

The distinction between GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 can be difficult to make in informal speech.

When the difficulty of the task reaches a certain level, GPT-4 distinguishes itself from GPT-3.5 by being more dependable, inventive, and capable of handling far more complex instructions.

What does the term GPT stand for?

Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) is a deep learning method that uses artificial neural networks to generate writing that resembles that of a person.

“GPT-4” refers to the fourth release of OpenAI’s software, which stands for “generative pre-trained transformer 4”.

It has studied enormous quantities of data from the internet to produce writing that resembles human speech and offer in-depth responses to users’ inquiries.

GPT-4, a recently created language model by OpenAI, can produce text that closely matches human speech.

The current ChatGPT, which is based on the GPT-3.5 technology, has been upgraded with this most recent version.

In three key areas, namely creativity, visual comprehension, and context handling, OpenAI asserts that GPT-4 is more evolved.

In terms of developing and working with users on creative ideas, GPT-4 is claimed to be noticeably more creative than its predecessor. This applies to everything from music to screenplays to technical writing to changing the writing style of the user.

The ability of GPT-4 to handle lengthier context has also been boosted by OpenAI in addition to creativity and visual input.

Up to 25,000 words of text from the user can now be processed by the new language model, and it can even interact with text from a user-provided web link. Long-form content creation and “extended dialogues” can be facilitated by this improved capacity.

The ability of GPT-4 to interact with images has also been improved. On their website, OpenAI gives a sample in which a chatbot is shown a picture of baking ingredients and asks what may be produced with them. If GPT-4 can similarly handle video is unknown.

Finally, according to OpenAI, GPT-4 is safer to employ than its forerunner. The company claims that after thorough testing, it can produce 40% more accurate results than the prior edition. In addition, it is 82% less likely to create stuff that is abusive or unsuitable.

What’s happening with Microsoft Bing AI and ChatGPT?

Microsoft Azure, a platform owned by the Redmond behemoth, was reportedly used by penAI to train the model.

The well-known chatbot ChatGPT and Microsoft’s Bing AI conversation are both powered by OpenAI’s GPT model. Microsoft recently acknowledged the usage of GPT-4 in the new Bing AI chatbot following months of rumours.

The new model will be accessible to paying ChatGPT subscribers who pay OpenAI’s $20 monthly subscription fee as well as through an API that enables developers to incorporate the AI into their applications. OpenAI claims to have already established partnerships with several businesses to include GPT-4 into their products, including Duolingo, Stripe, and Khan Academy.

Is this the era of AI?

Over the past few months, the race for AI dominance has picked up steam as both Microsoft and Google have entered the arena. The generative AI will build the foundation for a variety of upcoming goods.

When ChatGPT was first presented by OpenAI in November, it quickly became popular. Google is in a difficult position as a result of Microsoft’s interest in generative AI and its investment in OpenAI.

The dominant player in Silicon Valley has come under pressure to fully include AI capabilities in its key programmes, like Gmail and Docs.

Banks from 18 countries get RBI’s nod to trade in rupee: Centre in RS

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has permitted banks from 18 countries to open Special Vostro Rupee Accounts (SVRAs) to settle payments in rupees.

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has permitted banks from 18 countries to open Special Vostro Rupee Accounts (SVRAs) to settle payments in rupees, the government said. Speaking in Rajya Sabha, Union Minister of State for Finance Bhagwat Kishanrao Karad said that 60 such approvals have been given by the RBI.

Here are the 18 Countries which get RBI’s Nod:

These 18 nations include Botswana, Fiji, Germany, Guyana, Israel, Kenya, Malaysia, Mauritius, Myanmar, New Zealand, Oman, Russia, Seychelles, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Uganda and the United Kingdom.

India and The Special Vostro Rupee Accounts (SVRAs):

The process of SVRAs began in July 2022 when the RBI announced that, “it has been decided to put in place an additional arrangement for invoicing, payment, and settlement of exports/imports in INR [Indian rupees]”.

The announcement came against the backdrop of the commodities crisis triggered by the Western sanctions against Russia after President Vladimir Putin launched the “special military operation” against Ukraine in February 2022.

Trade in local currencies have been mooted as a solution to avoid the current wave of wartime international sanctions that are hampering supply chains and global trade flows.

What is a Vostro Account:

A vostro account is an account that domestic banks hold for foreign banks in the former’s domestic currency, in this case, the rupee.

Domestic banks use it to provide international banking services to their clients who have global banking needs.

The SRVA is an additional arrangement to the existing system that uses Freely convertible currencies and works as a complimentary system.

The existing systems require maintaining balances and position in such currencies like US dollar and pound to facilitate trade.

India Hosts SCO International Conference on ‘Shared Buddhist Heritage’

With a focus on India's civilizational connections with the SCO states, the two-day international conference of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) on "Shared Buddhist Heritage" was launched a

India Hosts SCO International Conference on ‘Shared Buddhist Heritage’

With a focus on India’s civilizational connections with the SCO states, the two-day international conference of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) on “Shared Buddhist Heritage” was launched at Vigyan Bhawan in New Delhi. This historic gathering brings together Central Asian, East Asian, South Asian, and Arab nations to discuss “Shared Buddhist Heritage” and is the first of its kind. It takes place under India’s leadership of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) (from September 17, 2022, to September 23, 2023) for a year.

Shared Buddhist Heritage Conference 2023: Participation

The SCO countries include China, Russia, and Mongolia as well as Member States, Observation States, and Conversation Partners. Scholars from the SCO are submitting research papers on the subject, including those from the International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University in Myanmar, the State Museum of the History of Religion in China, and Dunhuang Research Academy.

Who organised this conference?

The Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the World Buddhist Confederation are organising the two-day event (IBC-as a grantee body of the Ministry of Culture). Participants in the event include a number of Indian Buddhist experts. The Conference aims to re-establish cross-cultural connections and look for similarities between Central Asian Buddhist art, art forms, archaeological sites, and antiquity in various museum collections from SCO nations.

Aim of the conference:

The purpose of the conference is to reestablish cross-cultural linkages and look for similarities among Central Asian Buddhist art, art movements, archaeological locations, and antiquity in various SCO nation-state museum collections. The Conference is a unique gathering of minds where nations from various geographical areas but with a common thread connecting them based on a shared civilization legacy, strengthened by Buddhist missionaries who played a significant role in integrating various cultures, communities, and regions in the entire Indian subcontinent and Asia, will discuss for two days’ worth of various themes, outlining ways to maintain the centuries-old ties into the future.

Microsoft inks licensing deal with cloud gaming provider Boosteroid

Microsoft strikes a deal to make Xbox  PC video games available on the Boosteroid cloud gaming platform.

Microsoft strikes a deal to make Xbox PC video games available on the Boosteroid cloud gaming platform, its latest move to appease antitrust regulators scrutinising its purchase of game maker Activision Blizzard.

More About The Microsoft’s deal with Boosteroid:

The US tech giant said the 10-year agreement would also include Activision Blizzard titles like the popular Call of Duty franchise if or when the acquisition gets approved.

Significance of this deal:

Microsoft aims to boost its firepower in the booming videogaming market against leaders Tencent and Sony, and lay the base for its investment in metaverse.

Also, Microsoft has been announcing new partnerships as it tries to persuade regulators in the U.S. and Europe to allow the $69 billion all-cash transaction to go through.

Microsoft and Boosteroid:

Ukraine-based Boosteroid’s access to Call of Duty is conditional on regulatory approval for the Activision deal. The agreement will also bring Microsoft’s Xbox PC games to Boosteroid’s cloud gaming platform.

Microsoft’s Push towards bigger deal:

Microsoft has similar licensing deals with Nvidia, Nintendo and U.S. distributor Valve Corp, owner of the world’s largest video game distribution platform, Steam.

EU antitrust regulators are expected to approve Microsoft’s takeover of Activision conditional on such licensing deals. The UK watchdog however could be more difficult to convince.

In addition to Ukraine, Boosteroid also has gamers in the United States, the United Kingdom and EU countries.

SIPRI report 2023: India world’s largest arms importer

India is still the world's largest importer of military equipment, despite an 11% decline in arms purchases between 2013–17 and 2018–22, according to a study by the Sipri 2023.

SIPRI report 2023

India is still the world’s largest importer of military equipment, despite an 11% decline in arms purchases between 2013–17 and 2018–22, according to a study by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Sipri). The report is released at a time when India has intensified its efforts to become self-reliant in the defence manufacturing sector. This year’s defence budget included about Rs 1 lakh crore for domestic purchases, compared to Rs 84,598 crore, Rs 70,221 crore, and Rs 51,000 crore in the three years prior.

SIPRI report 2023: Overview of the news

According to data published by the think tank that tracks weapons imports over a five-year period, India had the biggest percentage of the world’s arms imports in the past five years at 11%, followed by Saudi Arabia (9.6%), Qatar (6.4%), Australia (4.7%), and China (4.7%).

The most recent report supports the findings of the Sipri report from last year. India remained still the world’s top importer of weaponry in 2022, despite a 21% decline in imports between 2012–16 and 2017–21, according to the report. A cumbersome procurement process and efforts to replace imports with local products, according to the latest research, were among the causes of the drop in India’s imports.

Over the last four to five years, India has implemented a variety of steps to increase defence self-reliance. Among them are setting up a separate budget to purchase military equipment made in-country, increasing foreign direct investment from 49% to 74%, and notifying foreign governments of the hundreds of weapons and systems that will be produced domestically over the next five to six years but cannot be imported.

SIPRI report 2023: Globally

In the past five years, the US exported 40% of all military goods worldwide, followed by Russia (16%), France (11%), China (5.2%), and Germany (4.2%), according to new Sipri data. From 2013–17 and 2018–22, American armament exports increased 14% while those of Russia decreased 31%. India imported 37% fewer goods from Russia.

According to Sipri, Ukraine was the 14th largest importer of major weaponry in 2018–2022 and the third largest in 2022.

According to the research, France’s arms exports increased by 44% between 2013 and 2018 and received 30% of them from India over the previous five years, surpassing the US to become India’s second-largest arms supplier after Russia.

She Changes Climate campaign: Shreya Ghodawat named as Ambassador for India

Climate entrepreneur Shreya Ghodawat has been appointed as India's ambassador for She Changes Climate– a global campaign driving awareness of the crucial role of women.

She Changes Climate campaign

She Changes Climate campaign: Climate entrepreneur Shreya Ghodawat has been appointed as India’s ambassador for She Changes Climate– a global campaign driving awareness of the crucial role of women in accelerating just climate action. On International Women’s Day, the global non-profit organization “She Changes Climate” unveiled a new campaign called “Embrace Equity” with the goal of amplifying women’s voices regarding the effects of climate change.”

She Changes Climate India Event

The global non-profit organisation launched a special initiative for International Women’s Day titled ‘Embrace Equity’ that aims to amplify the voices of women around the impacts of climate change. Shreya Ghodawat hosted an event at One8 Commune, Pune that witnessed impactful discussions and a special film screening on the occasion of International Women’s Day. The main objective of the event was to inspire and encourage women to take up more space in climate change conversations and lead innovative climate action solutions.

A special movie produced by She Changes Climate in collaboration with Visionary Pictures was also shown during the event. The movie features seven strong voices discussing the value of a gendered narrative in scientific research, leadership, and climate change. The SHE Changes Climate film has been nominated for awards from The Earth Future Festivals and at the Lift-Off Global Network Session 2022.

She Changes Climate is working to bring about real transformation by asking global leaders of governments and businesses to look at the talent pool that already exists within their nations to build genuinely representative leadership teams.

India & World Bank signs loan agreement for construction of Green National Highway Corridors Project in 4 States

The Government of India and the World Bank have signed an agreement for the development of Green National Highway Corridors in 4 states, with loan assistance of $500 million.

The Government of India and the World Bank have signed an agreement for the Green National Highway Corridors Project, with loan assistance of $500 million against total project cost of $1,288.24 million (Rs 7,662.47 crore).

Which 4 states covered under this agreement:

An aggregate length of 781 km will be constructed in the states of Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.

Aim of this agreement:

The objective of the green highway corridor is to demonstrate safe and green highways keeping in view climate resilience and use of green technologies by incorporating the provisions of conservation of natural resources using cement treated sub base/reclaimed asphalt pavement, the

Rajya Sabha was told.

Use of local/marginal material such as lime, fly ash, waste plastic, bio-engineering measures for slope protection such as hydroseeding, coco/jute fibre etc., will enhance the ability of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways to bring green technologies into the mainstream.

In order to promote eco-friendly means of transportation and decarbonize the transport sector, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has notified mass emission standards to introduce alternate fuels.

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