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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-23rd July 2022

NITI Aayog: India’s R&D expenditures one of the lowest worldwide

According to a report by the government think tank NITI Aayog and the Institute for Competitiveness, India has among of the lowest R&D expenditures worldwide. In fact, R&D spending in India has decreased, falling from 0.8 percent of GDP in 2008-09 to 0.7 percent in 2017-18. According to data, India has a lower GERD than the other BRICS countries. Spending amounts for Brazil, Russia, China, and South Africa are respectively 1.2 percent, 1.1 percent, over 2 percent, and 0.8 percent. Around 1.8 percent is the global average.


  • According to the India Innovation Index 2021, India has generally spent a small amount of money on research and development. The overall share of gross spending on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of GDP, which was roughly 0.7 percent, reflected this.

  • The United States, Sweden, and Switzerland are developed nations that spend roughly 2.9 percent, 3.2 percent, and 3.4 percent, respectively.

  • The biggest R&D expenditure per GDP is made by Israel, which is 4.5 percent.

  • The fact that expenditures in R&D take time to yield benefits is one of the explanations given for the low spending on R&D in emerging nations like India.

  • Authorities focus resources on addressing these concerns since they are more prevalent in nations like India, where they include reducing hunger, combating sickness, and improving quality of life.

Brain Drain Phenomenon:

People may relocate to another region, state, or nation in search of better prospects due to lower R&D funding and less inventive opportunities. This Phenomenon is known as Brain Drain Phenomenon. Brain drain is a phenomena that weakens a state’s competitive advantage and has a negative influence on the economy of the entire nation.

India and declining research output:

  • India’s GERD needs to significantly improve and reach at least 2 percent in order for the country to reach its aim of having a $5 trillion GDP.

  • At $43 per person, India has one of the lowest rates of GERD worldwide. India performs far worse than its BRICS and ASEAN rivals Brazil, Malaysia and Russia.

  • According to the data, only Mexico had a lower share of GERD as a percentage of GDP at $0.31.

  • Over the years, numerous businesses, professionals, and even the RBI have called attention to the subpar R&D performance.

  • The report notes that there has also been evidence of a disconnect between what is taught at the university level and what is needed in the workplace.

  • Recently, Infosys co-founder Kris Gopalakrishnan made the case that more private sector investment in R&D is necessary.

World Fragile X Awareness Day 2022: 22 July

The World Fragile X Awareness Day is marked on 22 July every year to celebrate families impacted by Fragile X and highlight the progress of research to find a cure. On this day, communities around the world come together to shine a light on Fragile X, by illuminating monuments and landmarks globally. World Fragile X Day celebrates families impacted by Fragile X and highlights advancements of research to find effective treatments and ultimately a cure.

About the Fragile X syndrome:

Fragile X syndrome causes mild to severe intellectual disability. It affects both males and females, but females usually have milder symptoms. Symptoms include delays in talking, anxiety and hyperactive behaviour. Some people have seizures. Physical features might include large ears, a long face, a prominent jaw and forehead and flat feet. Therapy can be used to treat learning disabilities. Medication may be used to treat anxiety and mood disorders.

About the FRAXA Research Foundation:

The FRAXA Research Foundation, which Clapp and her husband Michael Tranfaglia, MD, officially launched in 1994, has invested well over $32 million in more than 600 scientific grants in 19 countries. The World Fragile X Day was initiated by the US-based FRAXA Research Foundation.

Dinesh Gunawardena sworn in as the 15th Prime Minister of Sri Lanka

Senior politician, Dinesh Gunawardena has been appointed as the new and 15th Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, by President Ranil Wickremesinghe. He succeeds former prime minister Ranil Wickremesinghe, who has been sworn in as the country’s 9th president. Gunawardena, parliamentarian of the Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna (SLPP) party, took his oath in the capital Colombo in the presence of other senior legislators.

Gunawardena had been appointed Home Minister in April by then President Gotabaya Rajapaksa. With Gotabaya fleeing the country and resigning from his position, earlier prime minister Ranil Wickremesinghe was sworn in as the eighth President of Sri Lanka on July 21.

Sri Lanka Crisis:

Sri Lanka’s economy is bracing for a sharp contraction due to the unavailability of basic inputs for production, an 80 per cent depreciation of the currency since March 2022, coupled with a lack of foreign reserves and the country’s failure to meet its international debt obligations. As Sri Lanka scrambles to get back on track after the election of a new President, the people in the country — who are facing severe economic hardship — are still uncertain about the future.

Egypt’s Seif Ahmed named as FIH acting president

The International Hockey Federation (FIH) has appointed Egypt’s Seif Ahmed as its acting president following Indian administrator Narinder Batra’s resignation from the post. Batra resigned as FIH president and also quit as Indian Olympic Association (IOA) chief. He also gave up his International Olympic Committee (IOC) membership which was directly linked with his IOA position.

Executive Board has officially accepted Batra’s resignation and unanimously appointed Ahmed as its interim chief till fresh elections are held on November 5 during its two-day virtual Congress. Ahmed played for Egypt’s national team in 1968 and has a long association with the sport as an umpire and technical official. He is a member on the FIH Executive Board since 2001. The FIH is also concerned that Hockey India has been placed under a three-member Committee of Administrators by the Delhi High Court when the country is scheduled to host the 2023 World Cup.

Joker Malware: Google Play Store Deleted 50 Joker Malware Infected Apps

50 Apps Deleted by Google Play Store

According to Zscaler Threatlabz, 50 apps on the Google Play Store has been infected by the Joker Malware. However, Google Play Store has banned and deleted several apps that were infected by the Joker Malware.

What is Joker Malware?

Joker Malware is one of the most well-known malware which exploits Android devices. It manages to take advantage of Google’s official app store with the help of its trail signatures which includes updating the virus’s code, execution process, and payload-retrieval techniques. This malware is capable of stealing users’ personal information including contact details, device data, WAP services, and SMS messages.

List of deleted apps

The apps included in this list are deleted by Google Play Store and it recommends the user uninstall the app if downloaded.

  1. Universal PDF Scanner

  2. Private Message

  3. Premium SMS

  4. Smart Messages

  5. Text Emoji SMS

  6. Blood Pressure Checker

  7. Funny Keyboard

  8. Memory Silent Camera

  9. Custom-Themed Keyboard

  10. Light Messages

  11. Themes Photo Keyboard

  12. Send SMS

  13. Themes Chat Messenger

  14. Instant Messenger

  15. Cool Keyboard

  16. Font Emoji Keyboard

  17. Mini PDF Scanner

  18. Smart SMS Messages

  19. Creative Emoji Keyboard

  20. Fancy SMS

  21. Fonts Emoji Keyboard

  22. Personal Message

  23. Funny Emoji Message

  24. Magic Photo Editor

  25. Professional Messages

  26. All Photo Translators

  27. Chat SMS

  28. Smile Emoji

  29. Wow Translator

  30. All Language Translator

  31. Cool Messages

  32. Blood Pressure Diary

  33. Chat Text SMS

  34. Hi Text SMS

  35. Emoji Theme Keyboard

  36. iMessager

  37. Text SMS

  38. Camera Translator

  39. Come Messages

  40. Painting Photo Editor

  41. Rich Theme Message

  42. Quick Talk Message

  43. Advanced SMS

  44. Professional Messenger

  45. Classic Game Messenger

  46. Style Message

  47. Private Game Messages

  48. Timestamp Camera

  49. Social Message

  50. Simple Note Scanner

WHO Report: India was top remittance recipient in 2021 receiving $87 billion

India was the top recipient country for remittances inflows in 2021, in current US dollars, among the low and middle-income countries, according to a report released by World Health Organisation. India received remittances worth US$ 87 billion in 2021, as per the “first World report on the health of refugees and migrants”.

Key points of the report:

  • China ($53 billion), Mexico ($53 billion), the Philippines ($36 billion) and Egypt ($33 billion) were the top five nations in the list.

  • The United States was the largest source country for remittances in 2020, followed by the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Switzerland. Remittances increase or maintain consumer spending and soften the blow of economic hardship, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic.

About the WHO World report:

  • The first WHO World report on the health of refugees and migrants said that today about one in eight people in the world, some one billion, are migrants.

  • The report by the specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health said that in 2021 the top five remittance recipients in current US dollars were India, China, Mexico, the Philippines and Egypt.

  • The economic recovery in 2021 followed the resilience of remittance flows seen in 2020, which declined by a modest 1.7 per cent to USD 549 billion in the face of one of the deepest global recessions.

ISRO ‘Human Spaceflight Expo’ inaugurated at Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium

Indian Space Research Organisation, ISRO Chairman S Somnath along with other senior scientists inaugurated the Human Space Flight Expo at Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium in Bengaluru to commemorate the Azadi ki Amrit Mahotsav. ISRO is embarking on its maiden unmanned mission Gaganyaan soon and the exhibition showcased the crew module, GSLV Mark III human-rated launch vehicle and crew escape systems.

About the expo:

  • The expo, which will be open to the public from Friday to Sunday, is in collaboration with the planetarium and the Bangalore Association for Science Education (BASE).

  • The expo features a number of exhibits, including scaled models of various Indian satellites and launch vehicles as well as a scaled model of the proposed India Space Station. The expo also includes an interactive model of the Gaganyaan, the first Indian crewed spacecraft, which is slated to launch soon.

  • As part of the programme, two unmanned missions this year and one manned mission by next year is envisaged. The three days exhibition in the Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium will also have talks by ISRO scientists and film shows.


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