Constitution Day of India: History and Significance
Constitution Day is celebrated on 26th November every year in India to commemorate the adoption of the Constitution of India. The constitution of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949, and it came into effect on 26th January 1950.
Constitution Day of India: History and Significance- Key Points
The Constitution of India is termed as ‘of the people, for the people, and by the people.’
The preamble of the Indian Constitution declared India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, republic, and the welfare state.
Indian Constitution provides us with fundamental rights along with fundamental duties.
The Indian Constitution is the longest-written constitution in the world.
The Constitution offers a framework for the government of the country to keep in mind the social, religious, and cultural diversity of the nation.
Constitution Day: History
The Constituent Assembly adopted the Indian Constitution on 26th November 1949 and it came into effect on 26th January 1950. The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment announced the Centre’s decision to observe 26th November as Constitution Day in 2015. The day is observed to promote constitutional values among the citizens of India.
Constitution Day: Significance
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the chairman of the drafting committee of the Constituent Assembly.
He was the first Minister of Law and Justice in India.
The framing of the constitution took over 2 years, 11 months, and 17 days.
The constituent assembly included 299 members and 15 were a woman.
When the constitution was adopted in 1949, 284 members signed it.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly.
IIT Delhi Ranks in top 50 of Times Higher Education Employability Rankings
The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi has been placed at the 28th position in the Top 50 of Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking and Survey (GEURS). IIT Delhi is the only Indian institute to rank in the top 50. The varsity was ranked 27th last year.
IIT Delhi Ranks in top 50 of Times Higher Education Employability Rankings- Key Points
It is followed by IISc at rank 58 and IIT Bombay at rank 72. A total of seven Indian universities have ranked it in the top 250.
Three US institutes have taken the top 3 positions including Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, respectively.
The University of Cambridge and Stanford University have retained their position of fourth and fifth, respectively.
The University of Oxford rose from eighth to sixth position this year while the University of Tokyo from Japan has slipped from sixth to seventh this time.
Yale University which was ranked seventh last year has slipped to 10th position.
ISRO Begins Countdown for PSLV-C54 Mission
Scientists of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) commenced the countdown for the launch of Earth Observation Satellite – Oceansat – and eight other customer satellites on a PSLV-C54 rocket from the spaceport of Sriharikota.
More About The Development:
The countdown for the 56th flight of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), in its extended version (PSLV-XL), from the first launchpad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, 115 km from here.
The primary payload of the rocket is an Oceansat which would be separated in orbit-1 while the eight other nano-satellites would be placed in different orbits based on the customer requirements (in the Sun-synchronous polar orbits).
About This Historic mission:
The mission would be one of the longest ones undertaken by the ISRO scientists who would engage the rocket to change orbits using two-orbit change thrusters (OCTs) used in the PSLV-C54 launch vehicle. The separation of the Earth Observation Satellite is expected to take place in orbit-1 while the passenger payloads would be separated in Orbit-2.
The Earth Observation Satellite is expected to be placed after reaching an altitude of about 742 km about 20 minutes after lift-off.
About The Satellite & Its Objective:
The Earth Observation Satellite-6 is the third-generation satellite in the Oceansat series. This is to provide continuity services of Oceansat-2 spacecraft with enhanced payload specifications as well as application areas.
The objective of the mission is to ensure data continuity of ocean colour and wind vector data to sustain the operational applications.
About The Other Satellites To Be Launched:
The customer payloads include ISRO Nano Satellite-2 for Bhutan (INS-2B) which would have two payloads namely NanoMx and APRS-Digipeater. NanoMx is a multispectral optical imaging payload developed by Space Applications Centre while APRS-Digipeater payload is jointly developed by Department of Information Technology and Telecom, Bhutan, and U R Rao Satellite Centre, Bengaluru.
The ‘Anand’ satellite developed by Pixxel is technology demonstrator to demonstrate the capabilities and commercial applications of miniature earth observation camera for observation using a micro-satellite in low earth orbit.
The ‘Thybolt’ (two satellites) is from another space start-up Dhruva Space while Astrocast is a technology demonstrator satellite for the internet of things as the payload from Spaceflight, the United States of America.
About PSLV-C54 Rocket: PSLV & Its Importance:
The PSLV C54 rocket has four stages; each one was self-contained, with its own propulsion system, thereby capable of functioning independently. The first and third stages used composite solid propellants, while the second and fourth stage use earth-storable liquid propellant.
PSLV’s first launch was in 1994, and it has been ISRO’s main rocket ever since. Today’s PSLV, however, is vastly improved and several times more powerful than the ones used in the 1990s.
It is the first Indian launch vehicle to be equipped with liquid stages.
PSLV is the most reliable rocket used by ISRO till date, with 52 of its 54 flights being successful.
It successfully launched two spacecraft – Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 and Mars Orbiter Spacecraft in 2013 – that later traveled to Moon and Mars respectively.
India Wins Vice Presidency of International Electrotechnical Commission
India wins the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Vice Presidency and Strategic Management Board (SMB) Chair for the 2023-25 term. Shri Vimal Mahendru will be the IEC Vice President representing India.
More About This Development:
By securing over 90% of the votes cast by full members of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) during its General Meeting held recently in San Francisco, USA, India’s representative, a member of the Indian National Committee of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and various technical committees of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS-India), was elected.
Significance Of this:
Representation of BIS (India) in policy and governance bodies of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and IEC ensures that Indian viewpoints on the important strategic and policy matters are put forth and it also provides opportunities to align the national standardization priorities with International best practices.
BIS Increasing Importance:
BIS is continually expanding its international footprints by working on the growth mantra provided by the Minister of Commerce and Industry, Consumers Affairs, Food & Public Distribution and Textiles, Shri Piyush Goyal. Currently, BIS (India) is represented in various policy and governance bodies of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and IEC such as ISO Council, ISO Technical Management Board (TMB), IEC SMB, IEC Market Strategy Board (MSB), IEC Business Advisory Committee (BAC), etc.
About International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC):
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standard setting body that publishes international Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. Standardization Management Board (SMB) is an apex governance body of IEC responsible for technical policy matters.
About Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS):
BIS is the National Standard Body of India for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods.
BIS has been providing traceability and tangibility benefits to the national economy in a number of ways by:-
Providing safe reliable quality goods.
Minimizing health hazards to consumers.
Promoting exports and imports substitute.
Control over proliferation of varieties etc through standardization, certification and testing.
Qatar signed world’s ‘longest’ gas supply deal with China
QatarEnergy announced a 27-year natural gas supply deal with China, calling it the “longest” ever seen as it strengthened ties with Asia while Europe scrambles for alternative sources. The state energy company will send four million tonnes of liquefied natural gas annually from its new North Field East project to China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation (Sinopec).
Asian countries led by China, Japan and South Korea are the main market for Qatar’s gas, which is increasingly being sought by European countries since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Negotiations with European countries have struggled as Germany and others baulked at signing the type of long-term deals made with Asian nations. North Field is at the centre of Qatar’s expansion of its liquefied natural gas production by more than 60 percent to 126 million tonnes a year by 2027.
China is the first country to seal a deal for North Field East. The Chinese company’s chairman revealed it had also requested a full share of the North Field South project that is dominated by Western energy giants.
Lt General Asim Munir Appointed as New Army Chief of Pakistan
Pakistan Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif appointed Lieutenant General Asim Munir as the new army chief of the country, replacing incumbent General Qamar Javed Bajwa. Information minister Marriyum Aurangzeb announced the appointment on Twitter ending weeks of speculation over what some call the most powerful position in the South Asian nation.
Lt General Asim Munir Appointed as New Army Chief of Pakistan- Key Points
Pakistan’s military has directly ruled the country of 220 million people for nearly half of its 75-year history.
Lieutenant General Sahir Shamshad will take charge as the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
PM Sharif held a cabinet meeting earlier where he selected Munir from a list of six nominees for the top military post.
Munir is currently posted at the army headquarters in Rawalpindi. He has served briefly as chief of the country’s premier intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).
INS Mormugao: Second Ship of Project 15B Delivered to Indian Navy
INS Mormugao is the second ship of Project 15B stealth destroyers being built at Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL). INS Mormugao was delivered to the Indian Navy on 24th November 2022. Project 15B was signed on 28th January 2011, which is a contract of four ships.
This project is a follow-on of the Kolkata class (Project 15A) destroyers Commissioned in the last decade and the lead ship of the project-INS Visakhapatnam had been commissioned into the Indian Navy on 21st November 2021.
About the INS Mormugao
INS Mormugao was designed by the Warship Design Bureau, the Indian Navy’s in-house organization, and M/s Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd, Mumbai. The four ships are named after four major cities in India, which are Imphal, Surat, Vishakhapatnam, and Mormugao.