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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-30th November 2022

World’s Largest Active Volcano Mauna Loa Erupted in Hawaii

The world’s largest active volcano erupted in Hawaii for the first time in four decades. Mauna Loa erupted at 11.30 pm according to the U.S. Geological Survey. It was the first eruption since 1984. The eruption began in Moku’aweoweo, the summit caldera of Mauna Loa, inside the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

World’s Largest Active Volcano Mauna Loa Erupted in Hawaii – Key Points

  • The residents at risk from Mauna Loa lava flows were advised to review preparedness and refer to Hawaii Country Civil Defence information for further guidance.

  • The early stages of the Mauna Loa eruption were dynamic and the advances of lava changed rapidly.

  • Hawaii’s civil defense agency also helped meet across the island to help residents prepare for a possible emergency.

  • Before the recent Mauna Loa eruption, it erupted 33 times, beginning from 1843.

  • It is the most active volcano and covers half of the island.

  • It is also one of six volcanoes in the state of Hawaii.

November 28 is marked as Red Planet Day

Red Planet Day 2022:

Commemorating the day one of the most significant space missions to Mars was launched, November 28 is marked as Red Planet Day. After 3 previous attempts, Spacecraft Mariner 4 became the first successful flyby of Mars. The spacecraft was launched on November 28, 1964, and reached Mars on July 14, 1965. The successful mission produced 22 pictures of the Martian surface. These pictures were the first-ever close-up photos to come from deep space. This mission, along with several others that occurred afterward, has helped us learn much about the red planet.

About the Mars:

The fourth planet from the Sun is the Red Planet or Mars. It has a very thin atmosphere over a dusty, chilly, desert world. Along with having seasons, polar ice caps, canyons, extinct volcanoes, and evidence that it was once even more active, Mars is a dynamic planet.

Here are some more interesting facts about this planet:

  • It’s the iron oxide on the planet’s surface that makes it red

  • Mars is half the size of Earth but it’s still the fourth largest planet.

  • The minimum distance from Earth to Mars is about 33.9 million miles.

  • It’s the fourth planet from the sun.

  • Deimos and Phobos are the names of the two moons on Mars.

  • The temperature range is between -191 to 81 degrees F.

  • The atmosphere is thin and is mostly made up of carbon dioxide.

  • Mars boasts the highest mountain is our solar system and it’s 3 times the height of Mount Everest.

  • One year on Mars is 687 Earth days.

  • In 2018, scientists found evidence of a lake under a polar ice cap on Mars.

One more amazing fact is that due to the difference in gravity, a 100-pound man would only weigh 38 pounds on Mars. It’s no wonder so many people want to go to Mars! In fact, NASA wants to send humans to Mars as early as 2030.

How many country visit Mars?

After the Cold War, which saw intense competition between the USSR and the US in terms of deepening their forays into space, other countries also launched their explorations.

  • NASA has a lander (Mars Insight), a rover (Curiosity), and three orbiters (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, MAVEN);

  • India’s ISRO has an orbiter (Mangalyaan-1). India’s Mars Orbiter Mission, a technology demonstration venture carried five scientific payloads (total 15 kg) collecting data on surface geology, morphology, atmospheric processes, surface temperature and atmospheric escape process.

  • The European Union has 2 orbiters (Mars Express and ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter); and

  • China and UAE will have an orbiter each (Hope and Tianwen-1 respectively). The UAE mission will study the Martian atmosphere, and will seek to address the billion-dollar question of how and why Mars lost its atmosphere.

NITI Aayog Releases Study Report on ‘Carbon Capture to Achieve Net Zero Emission Target by 2070

A study report, titled ‘Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage Policy Framework and its Deployment Mechanism in India’, was released. The report explores the importance of Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage as an emission reduction strategy to achieve deep decarbonization from the hard-to-abate sectors. The report outlines broad level policy interventions needed across various sectors for its application.

Need Of The Study:

India has updated its NDC targets for achieving 50% of its total installed capacity from non-fossil-based energy sources, 45% reduction in emission intensity by 2030 and taking steps towards achieving Net Zero by 2070, the role of Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS) becomes important as reduction strategy to achieve decarbonization from the hard-to abate sectors.

What The NITI Aayog Said:

“CCUS can enable the production of clean products while still utilizing our rich endowments of coal, reducing imports and thus leading to an Atmanirbhar Indian economy.” said Suman Bery, Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog. Implementation of CCUS technology certainly be an important step to decarbonise the hard-to-abate sector.

CCUS projects will also lead to a significant employment generation. It estimates that about 750 mtpa of carbon capture by 2050 can create employment opportunities of about 8-10 million on full time equivalent (FTE) basis in a phased manner.

“India’s dependency on the fossil-based Energy Resources is likely to continue in future, hence CCUS policy in Indian Context is needed” said Dr. V.K Saraswat, Member, NITI Aayog.

What The Report Pointed:

The report indicates that CCUS can provide a wide variety of opportunities to convert the captured CO2 to different value-added products like green urea, food and beverage form application, building materials (concrete and aggregates), chemicals (methanol and ethanol), polymers (including bio-plastics) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) with wide market opportunities in India, thus contributing substantially to a circular economy.

Ministry of Power Launches Scheme for Procurement of Aggregate Power of 4500 MW for 5 Years

Ministry of Power has launched a scheme for procurement of aggregate power of 4500 MW for five years under SHAKTI Policy. The Ministry said that the scheme will help states that are facing power shortage and help generation plants to increase their capacities.

More About This Development:

The last date for the bid submission is 21st December. It is for the first time that bidding is being carried out under B(v) of SHAKTI scheme. PFC Consulting Limited has been designated as the nodal agency. It has invited bids for the supply of 4,500 MW electricity. The supply will commence from April next year.

The utilities that have shown interest for the scheme are Gujarat Urja Vikas Nigam Ltd, Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Ltd, Madhya Pradesh Power Management Company Ltd, New Delhi Municipal Corporation and Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Ltd.

About The SHAKTI Scheme:

SHAKTI, or Scheme for Harnessing and Allocating Koyala Transparently in India, was launched in 2018 to provide coal to stressed power units which lack coal supply. This scheme is expected to help the states that are facing power shortage and also help generation plants to increase their capacities.

The Ministry of Power had notified the Guidelines for procurement of power on Finance, Own and Operate (FOO) basis under para B (v) of the SHAKTI Policy on 25th October 2022. The methodology for coal allocation as per provisions of Para B (v) of SHAKTI policy was issued on 11th May, 2022.

Indore Plans India’s First Retail Municipal Green Bond for Solar Plant

Indore with a strong environmental record is planning to issue the nation’s first local government bond targeting individual investors, with proceeds used to fund a solar power project.

More About This Development:

Indore Municipal Corp. seeks to raise as much as 2.6 billion rupees ($31.8 million) via a 10-year bond sale next month, according to Divyank Singh, chief executive officer of Indore Smart City, who is working with various stakeholders to finalize the offering. The offering from Indore, which is in the central state of Madhya Pradesh, is also set to be the country’s maiden municipal green bond designed for retail investors.

Who Will Manage:

The issuer has mandated A.K. Capital Services Ltd. and SBI Capital Markets Ltd. as lead managers of the offering, Singh said.

What Has Been Said:

We could have easily funded the power plant by getting money from banks or private players, but we have decided to reach out to the people because it gives a sense of belongingness,” Singh said. “The issuance is an alternative, newer financing source for the municipality and also opens doors for others to follow suit.”

About Its Importance: Indore’s Continuous Performance:

The green debt sale is occurring at a time when the World Bank has estimated that Asia’s third-largest economy will need to invest $840 billion over the next 15 years on urban infrastructure to meet demand from a fast-growing urban population. India’s central bank also has called on local authorities, which are heavily dependent on bank loans or government grants, to consider issuing municipal bonds to meet funding requirements.

Indore has won the award of India’s cleanest city for six years in a row, based on a survey conducted by the country’s housing and urban affairs ministry. The 60-megawatt solar plant will be built near Indore at a cost of 3 billion rupees, Singh said, adding that it will help the city save an electricity bill of as much as 250 million rupees a month.

Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar Launched Har Ghar Gangajal Project

Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar launched the Har Ghar Gangajal Project in Rajgir. The Har Ghar Gangajal Project is a unique and ambitious initiative to provide Ganga water on tap in the parched areas of the state. The Har Ghar Gangajal Project will help to harvest the excess water of the Ganga during the monsoon season. The water will be stored in reservoirs in Rajgir and Gaya before being channeled to three treatment-and-purification plants.

Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar Launched Har Ghar Gangajal Project- Key Points

  • Megha Engineering and Infrastructures Limited (MEIL), responsible for implementing the scheme, has called it a “first-of-its-kind project” in India.

  • The initiative has two objectives. First, it conserves floodwater, preventing wastage, and second, it transforms the resource into safe, drinkable water.

What is Har Ghar Gangajal project?

Under the Har Ghar Gangajal project, the excess water of the Ganga will be stored in a reservoir which would then be treated and supplied to Rajgir, Gaya, and Bodh Gaya, the regions that have witnessed water scarcity for a long period.

India – Malaysia joint military Exercise “Harimau Shakti -2022”

Harimau Shakti -2022:

India – Malaysia joint military Exercise “Harimau Shakti -2022” commenced at Pulai, Kluang, Malaysia on 28th November and will culminate on 12th December 22. The joint exercise schedule includes the establishment of a joint command post, joint surveillance centre, sharing expertise in employment of aerial assets, technical demonstrations, casualty management & casualty evacuation apart from planning logistics at the Battalion level. Combat-experienced troops of the GARHWAL RIFLES Regiment of Indian Army and the Royal Malay Regiment of the Malaysian Army are participating in the exercise this year to share experiences gained during operations in order to enhance inter-operability in planning & execution of various operations in jungle terrain.

About the Harimau Shakti -2022:

  • Exercise HARIMAU SHAKTI is an annual training event between the Indian and Malaysian Army which is being conducted since 2012. The scope of this exercise involves a Command Planning Exercise (CPX) at the Battalion level and Company level Field Training Exercise (FTX) on sub-conventional operations in jungle terrain.

  • Joint field training exercises, joint combat discussions and joint demonstrations will culminate with a two-day validation exercise, where special emphasis will be on enhancing tactical skills and enhancing inter-operability between the forces and to promote Army to Army relations. “Exercise HARIMAU SHAKTI” will enhance the level of defence co-operation between Indian Army and the Malaysian Army, which in turn will further foster the bilateral relations between the two nations.

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