Goa Liberation Day: December 19
‘Goa Liberation Day’ is celebrated on December 19 to commemorate the state’s liberation from Portuguese rule in 1961. As part of Operation Vijay, the Indian armed forces used the armed forces trifecta with the help of local resistance movements to eradicate European rule from the country.
Goa Liberation Day 2022: History
Goa had been under Portuguese rule for roughly 450 years on August 15, 1947, when India attained freedom. It was at this time that the Portuguese began colonizing some areas of India and demonstrated their steadfast control over Goa and other Indian territories, even after India gained independence from the British.
The Day honors the day the state finally freed itself from Portuguese hegemony. The capital of the state of Goa, which is bordered by the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka, is Panaji. After being liberated from Portuguese rule, it joined India and received statehood from the government in 1987.
What was the movement for Goa’s independence:
Goa had started to witness an upsurge of nationalist sentiment opposed to Portugal’s colonial rule, in sync with the anti-British nationalist movement in the rest of India. Leaders such Tristão de Bragança Cunha, celebrated as the father of Goan nationalism, founded the Goa National Congress at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress in 1928. In 1946, the socialist leader Ram Manohar Lohia led a historic rally in Goa that gave a call for civil liberties and freedom, and eventual integration with India, which became a watershed moment in Goa’s freedom struggle.
How was independence achieved:
Post-1947, Portugal refused to negotiate with independent India on the transfer of sovereignty of their Indian enclaves. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was keen that Goa should be integrated by diplomatic means. After Portugal became part of the US-led Western military alliance NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) in 1949, Goa too became part of the anti-Soviet alliance by extension. Fearing a collective Western response to a possible attack on Goa, the Indian government continued to lay stress on diplomacy.
In his 1955 Independence Day speech, Nehru was critical of the satyagraha movement in Goa. However, the Indian government reacted sharply to an incident of firing on satyagrahis, and snapped ties with Portugal. Scholars have pointed out that as India aggressively championed the Non-Aligned Movement, decolonisation, and anti-imperialism as pillars of its policy, the continuation of colonial rule in Portugal became increasingly unsustainable.
The Indian government finally declared that Goa should join India “either with full peace or with full use of force”. December 18 and 19, 1961 saw a full-fledged military operation termed ‘Operation Vijay’, which was carried out with little resistance and an instrument of surrender was signed, leading to Goa’s annexation by India.
A book titled “The Light We Carry: Overcoming In Uncertain Times” by Michelle Obama
Light We Carry: Overcoming in Uncertain Times:
The Light We Carry: Overcoming in Uncertain Times is a nonfiction book written by Michelle Obama and published, by Crown Publishing. The Light We Carry will inspire readers to examine their own lives, identify their sources of gladness, and connect meaningfully in a turbulent world. The author “shares the contents of her ‘personal toolbox’ – the habits and practices, attitudes and beliefs, and even physical objects that she uses to overcome her feelings of fear, helplessness and self doubt.”
The essence of the book:
The Light We Carry: Overcoming in Uncertain Times has generally received positive reviews by book critics for herself on biography. In The Light We Carry, the former First Lady shares her practical wisdom and powerful strategies for staying hopeful and balanced in today’s highly uncertain world. A mother, daughter, spouse and friend, she shares fresh stories, her insightful reflections on change and the earned wisdom that helps her continue to “become.” With her trademark humour, candour, and compassion, she also explores issues connected to race, gender, and visibility, encouraging readers to work through fear, find strength in community, and live with boldness.
2022 Global Food Security Index (GFSI) Report
The 2022 Global Food Security Index (GFSI) report was released by the British weekly The Economist. The 11th Global Food Security Index shows a deterioration in the global food environment for the third year, threatening food security. In this report, South Africa overtook Tunisia to become the most food-secure country in Africa.
It measures the underlying drivers of food security based on the following factors:
Quality and Safety
Natural Resources and Resilience.
Key findings of the report:
Vulnerability to Shocks: The global food environment is deteriorating, making it vulnerable to shocks. Significant progress was made in global food security from 2012 to 2015, with the overall GFSI score increasing by 6 percent. However, structural challenges have caused the growth of the global food system to slow down. The past 3 years witnessed a reversal in the global trend of the overall food security environment.
Affordability: In 2022, the GFSI suffered because of the plummeting of two of its strongest pillars – affordability, and quality and safety. The weakness in the other two pillars (availability, and sustainability and adaptation) continued during this year. Affordability (top-scoring pillar) was dragged down mainly because of the sharp rise in food inflation, declining freedom of trade and reduced funding for food safety nets.
Widening food security gap: In 2022, 8 of the top 10 performing countries are in Europe, with Finland topping the list with a score of 83.7. It is followed by Ireland (scoring 81.7) and Norway (scoring 80.5). These countries have received high scores on all 4 pillars of the GFSI. The non-European countries in the top 10 list are Japan and Canada. The difference between the top-performing countries and countries at the lower rank has been widening since 2019, revealing the inequity in the global food system.
Africa’s Most Food-Secure Country: South Africa, at the 59th position, was recognized as the most food-secure country in Africa. It made a record leap from the 70th rank in 2021. This comes despite the various global challenges to the country’s agriculture sectir, like climate change, the fertilizer crisis caused by the Ukraine war, inflation, etc. This is the first time that a country in Sub-Saharan Africa was the top performer in the continent. The second-best performing country in Africa is Tunisia at the 62nd position.
Global Food Security Index & India:
India is ranked at 68th position along with Algeria with the overall score of 58.9. China’s position is at 25th with the score of 74.2.
India was ranked at 71st position in the Global Food Security (GFS) Index 2021 of 113 countries with an overall score of 57.2 points on the GFS Index 2021.
International Migrants Day 2022: 18 December
International Migrants Day 2022:
International Migrants Day is observed annually on December 18 to bring attention to the social and economic realities of migrants around the world. This day is observed to guarantee that the rights of migrants are equally respected and not violated. The mobility of people is still influenced by a range of factors despite the world’s rapid growth and change.
Currently, 281 million individuals are international migrants who reside in nations other than their own. International Migrants Day serves as a reminder that the challenges faced by migrants in every country remain unresolved, and policymakers must continue to develop constructive and comprehensive policies to address the issue.
International Migrants Day 2022: Significance
The day is set aside to honour the health, security, and welfare of all migrants. During the Intergovernmental Conference in December 2018, it was decided to adopt the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration.
The concepts of shared accountability, non-discrimination, and immigrant human rights are highlighted on this day. The purpose of the day is to recognise how to manage the risks associated with migration while maximising its overall benefits for individuals and communities in the countries of origin, transit, and destination.
International Migrants Day: History
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) proclaimed December 18 as International Migrants Day on December 4, 2000. This special day came into existence after considering the enormous and rising number of migrants around the world. On this day in 1990, the UNGA adopted the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.
India Announced Candidature for UNSC Membership for 2028-29 Term
India looks forward to being back in the UN Security Council, External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar said, as he declared the country’s candidature as non-permanent member for the 2028-29 term. Jaishankar arrived at UN to preside over two signature events on counter-terrorism and reformed multilateralism held under India’s current Presidency of the UN Security Council, before the curtains come down this month on the country’s two-year tenure as elected member of the 15-nation top organ of the world body.
India & UNSC Membership:
The previous eight terms that India has been in the Council are 1950-1951, 1967-1968, 1972-1973, 1977-1978, 1984-1985, 1991-1992 and 2011-2012. On December 1, India assumed the monthly rotating Presidency of the Security Council, the second time after August 2021 that India is presiding over the Council during its two year tenure as elected UNSC member. India, whose 2021-2022 term on the Council ends December 31, has been at the forefront of efforts calling for urgent reform of the Security Council, which has remained deeply divisive in dealing with current challenges. India has asserted that the Council, in its current form, does not reflect today’s geo-political realities and its credibility is at risk if nations such developing powers like India do not have a permanent seat at the horse-shoe table.
India Successfully Conducted Night trials of Agni V Ballistic Missile
India conducted successful night trials of the Agni V ballistic missile. The Agni V can strike targets beyond 5,000 kilometers. The test was carried out by the Defence Ministry, to validate new technologies and equipment on the missile and has proved that the missile can now hit targets further away than before.
India Successfully Conducted Night trials of Agni V Ballistic Missile- Key Points
The nuclear-capable ballistic missile was fired from Abdul Kalam Island, off the coast of Odisha.
This is the ninth flight of the Agni V, it was first tested in 2012 and was a routine test.
India had announced its intention to test a long-range missile and issued a NOTAM or Notice to Airmen well before the incident in Arunachal’s Tawang.
With the incursion in Arunachal, China tried to “unilaterally change the status quo” on the de facto border known as the Line of Actual Control last week.
This resulted in triggering clashes that left troops on both sides injured, the government had said, adding that the attempt had been successfully repulsed.
RBI to Issue Two Tranches of Sovereign Gold Bonds in December and March
The Reserve Bank of India is to issue two tranches of Sovereign Gold Bonds, which will open for public subscription in December and March. Sovereign Gold Bonds (SGBs) 2022-23-Series III will open for subscription during December 19-December 23 and 2022-23-Series IV during March 06-10, 2023. These bonds are issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on behalf of the government.
The SGBs will be sold through Scheduled Commercial, Stock Holding Corporation of India Limited (SHCIL), Clearing Corporation of India Limited (CCIL), designated post offices, and stock exchanges — NSE and BSE.
RBI to Issue Two Tranches of Sovereign Gold Bonds in December and March- Key Points
The tenor of the SGB will be for eight years with an option of premature redemption after 5th year to be exercised on the date on which interest is payable.
The investors will be compensated at a fixed rate of 2.50 percent per annum payable semi-annually on the nominal value.
The maximum limit of subscription is 4 kilograms for individuals, 4 kg for HUF, and 20 kg for trusts and similar entities per fiscal year.
The Loan-To-Value (LTV) ratio is to be set equal to the ordinary gold loan mandated by the Reserve Bank from time to time.
The price of SGB is fixed in Indian Rupees based on a simple average of the closing price of gold of 999 purity, published by the India Bullion and Jewellers Association Limited (IBJA) for the last three working days of the week preceding the subscription period.