World Day Against Child Labour 2023 observed on 12 June
World Day Against Child Labour, observed on June 12th, aims to inspire a global movement against child labour. With the slogan “Social Justice for All. End Child Labour!” in 2023, it highlights the connection between social justice and the eradication of child labour. The International Labour Organization initiated this event in 2002, turning it into an international occasion. Its purpose is to motivate individuals, organizations, and governments to combat child labour and work towards its permanent elimination.
World Day Against Child Labour 2023, Theme and Significance
The theme for World Day Against Child Labour 2023 is “Social Justice for All. End Child Labour!” This theme highlights the connection between social justice and the issue of child labour.
Child labour is a grave problem that deprives children of their innocence, rights, and a normal childhood. They are subjected to exploitation and forced to work in hazardous conditions. Observing World Day Against Child Labour provides an important opportunity to address this issue and raise awareness about the urgent need to eradicate child labour.
This day holds significance because it serves as a platform to amplify the message of ending child labour. By supporting and observing this day, individuals and organizations can contribute to the global movement against child labour, advocating for the rights and well-being of children.
History of World Day Against Child Labour
The International Labour Organization initiated World Day Against Child Labour in 2002. Since then, the event has gained momentum and is now celebrated annually across the globe. Its purpose is to draw attention to the issue of child labour and mobilize efforts to combat it effectively. The continued observance of this day reflects the commitment of various stakeholders to address this pressing issue and work towards a world free from child labour.
Kilauea volcano erupts on Hawaii’s Big Island
The US Geological Survey (USGS) has downgraded the safety alert for Kilauea volcano in Hawaii, following a new eruption. The alert level has been reduced from “WARNING” to “WATCH” as effusion rates have declined and no infrastructure is threatened. The previous warning has been lowered to a watch, as high effusion rates have decreased and no infrastructure is considered to be under threat. Aviation warnings have shifted from red to orange also.
Kilauea volcano eruption: Key Points
Aviation warnings have also been reduced from red to orange. Kilauea, one of the world’s most active volcanoes, is located in a closed national park on the Big Island of Hawaii.
The ongoing eruption is expected to persist, however, lava flows will continue to be limited to the crater and summit of the volcano.
Hawaiians are asking tourists to observe the volcano’s eruption from a respectful distance.
While lava flows are expected to remain confined to the surrounding crater and summit, USGS predicts that the eruption will continue.
Kilauea volcano: About
Kīlauea is a volcano on the southeastern shore of Hawaii’s Big Island.
It formed about 100,000 years ago and is between 210,000 and 280,000 years old.
Along with four other volcanoes, it comprises the island of Hawaii.
Kīlauea is the most active of the five and one of the most active in the world, with recent eruptions in 2021 and 2023.
Initially considered a satellite of its larger neighbor Mauna Loa, Kīlauea has its own structures, including a summit caldera and two active rift zones extending east and west.
Halemaʻumaʻu pit crater has hosted an active lava lake, and between 1983 and 2018, Kīlauea experienced nearly continuous eruptions from vents on its eastern rift zone.
In 2018, activity shifted to the lower Puna district, destroying hundreds of dwellings, Hawaii’s largest natural freshwater lake, and several communities.
The eruption also prompted the closure of the Kīlauea section of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Kīlauea erupted again in 2020 and 2021, draining a water lake to create a lava lake in the Halemaʻumaʻu crater.
Australia Crowned with ICC World Test Championship 2023
Australia clinched the title of World Test Champions in a commanding fashion, securing a resounding 209-run victory over India in the thrilling WTC Final at The Oval. Travis Head and Steve Smith’s remarkable centuries in the first innings laid the foundation for Australia’s early control of the Test. Despite India’s valiant response, the match extended to a fifth day, but they fell short of an extraordinary record chase, ultimately being bowled out for 234. Australia scripted history on Sunday, June 11 as they became the first men’s team in world cricket to win an International Cricket Council (ICC) world title in all three formats.
AUSTRALIA’S ICC TITLE’S (MEN’S CRICKET)
50-over World Cups: 1987, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2015
Champions Trophy: 2006, 2009
T20 World Cup – 2021
World Test Championship – 2021-23
World Test Championship 2023, Scott Boland and Lyon Lead Australia’s Bowling Charge
Australia’s triumph in the World Test Championship final was fueled by an exceptional bowling performance led by Scott Boland. Boland made early breakthroughs with two crucial dismissals on the final day, setting the tone for an impressive display. Accompanied by the contributions of Nathan Lyon and Mitchell Starc, Australia systematically dismantled India’s batting lineup, ultimately clinching the title. Nathan Lyon’s stellar performance throughout the Test Championship made him the highest wicket-taker in the world.
Australian Batsmen Shine Bright in ICC World Test Championship Cycle
Australia’s dominance in the WTC cycle was bolstered by their formidable batting lineup, with four of their top six run-scorers featuring prominently in the rankings. Usman Khawaja and Marnus Labuschagne showcased their prowess, accumulating an impressive tally of runs, with only Joe Root surpassing them in scoring. Furthermore, Travis Head and Steve Smith, the heroes of the first innings in the WTC Final, displayed their consistency throughout the Championship, contributing significantly with 1407 and 1389 runs respectively.
China Unveils World’s Most Powerful Hypersonic Wind Tunnel for Advancing Aerospace Ambitions
China has achieved a major milestone in its pursuit of hypersonic technology with the completion of the world’s most powerful wind tunnel. Known as the JF-22, this groundbreaking facility is set to play a pivotal role in China’s hypersonic ambitions, enabling the country to make significant strides in the development of hypersonic vehicles. The JF-22 wind tunnel, located in Beijing’s Huairou district, boasts impressive capabilities, including the ability to simulate hypersonic flight conditions at speeds up to Mach 30.
Understanding the Challenges of Hypersonic Flight:
Hypersonic flight poses numerous challenges, including managing extreme heat and pressure, ensuring stable flight paths, and guaranteeing passenger safety. The JF-22 wind tunnel provides a controlled environment for researchers to study these complex physics and overcome the technical hurdles associated with hypersonic flight. By simulating hypersonic conditions, researchers can better understand the interaction of hypersonic vehicles with their surroundings and develop innovative technologies to enhance performance and safety.
Importance of Wind Tunnels in Hypersonic Research:
Wind tunnels like the JF-22 are crucial tools in advancing hypersonic technology. These facilities allow for systematic testing and analysis of vehicles in controlled environments. By subjecting models or prototypes to high-speed airflow, researchers can identify potential issues or design flaws before building and flying actual vehicles. This reduces the risk of failure or accidents and enables the development of robust and reliable hypersonic systems.
Innovative Approach of the JF-22 Wind Tunnel:
What sets the JF-22 wind tunnel apart is its innovative approach to generating airflow. Instead of traditional expansion methods, the JF-22 employs a shock wave generator called a “reflected direct shock wave driver.” This system utilizes precisely timed explosions to create shock waves that converge, generating high-speed airflow within the tunnel. While this method has its drawbacks, such as noise, air pollution, and safety concerns, it provides the rapid and intense energy bursts required for hypersonic testing.
Validation of the JF-22 Wind Tunnel:
The performance of the JF-22 wind tunnel has been thoroughly evaluated by a team of 16 independent experts, who have acknowledged its world-leading capabilities. Its state-of-the-art design and functionality position it as a cutting-edge facility for hypersonic research. Alongside the JF-12 wind tunnel, which simulates flight conditions up to Mach 9, these wind tunnels create a comprehensive experimental platform for testing near-space vehicles. By combining data from both tunnels, researchers can enhance their understanding of materials and designs under various flight conditions, ultimately improving the performance and reliability of hypersonic weapons and aircraft.
Exploration of Coal and Lignite Scheme Extended: Unveiling India’s Energy Potential
India, as one of the world’s fastest-growing economies, heavily relies on coal and lignite as primary sources of energy. To ensure a sustainable and uninterrupted supply, the Indian government has extended the ‘Exploration of Coal and Lignite Scheme’ from 2021-22 to 2025-26. With an estimated expenditure of ₹2,980 crore, this central sector plan aims to explore and assess the country’s coal and lignite resources, laying the foundation for informed decision-making and future coal mining endeavors.
Assessing Presence, Quantity, and Quality The primary objective of the ‘Exploration of Coal and Lignite Scheme’ is to determine the presence, quantity, and quality of coal and lignite resources within India. Through systematic exploration efforts, geological surveys are conducted to identify potential areas for coal mining. By understanding the geology and characteristics of these resources, the government can effectively plan for their extraction, ensuring long-term energy security.
Promotional (Regional) Exploration:
Shaping the Future A significant portion of the allocated funds, ₹1,650 crore, is dedicated to promotional (regional) exploration. This stage involves surveying approximately 1,300 square kilometers to identify potential coal and lignite deposits. By conducting comprehensive studies, the scheme aims to encourage investment and generate interest in the development of these resources. Such exploration plays a pivotal role in attracting both domestic and international stakeholders, contributing to economic growth and job creation in the coal mining sector.
Detailed Exploration in non-Coal India Limited (CIL) Blocks:
Unveiling Potential The ‘Exploration of Coal and Lignite Scheme’ also allocates ₹1,330 crore for detailed drilling in non-CIL areas, covering about 650 square kilometers. This stage involves extensive field investigations, including drilling boreholes and conducting geological surveys, to assess the quality and quantity of coal and lignite reserves. Detailed exploration provides vital data that supports the preparation of comprehensive project reports necessary for initiating coal mining operations.
Utilization of Geological Reports:
Driving Efficiency The geological reports generated through these explorations serve as a crucial resource for various purposes. Firstly, they aid in the auctioning of new coal blocks, ensuring a transparent and competitive bidding process. Potential allocatees can make informed decisions based on the comprehensive geological information provided, enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of resource allocation. Additionally, the cost incurred during exploration is subsequently recovered from successful allocatees, ensuring a self-sustaining financial model for the scheme.
Empowering India’s Energy Sector The ‘Exploration of Coal and Lignite Scheme’ holds immense significance for India’s energy sector and the nation as a whole. By accurately estimating the available coal and lignite resources, the scheme contributes to the preparation of detailed project reports, which facilitate the start of coal mining operations. This, in turn, helps meet the rising energy demands of various sectors, including power generation, industries, and domestic consumption. Furthermore, the scheme supports job creation, economic growth, and ensures long-term energy security for the nation.
Fostering Sustainability and Innovation As India seeks to diversify its energy mix and reduce its dependence on coal, the ‘Exploration of Coal and Lignite Scheme’ lays the foundation for a sustainable transition. The data and knowledge gained through this exploration will enable informed decision-making regarding the utilization of coal resources, including adopting cleaner technologies, enhancing environmental sustainability, and promoting renewable energy sources. The scheme also encourages innovation in the coal mining sector, fostering research and development to maximize efficiency and minimize environmental impact.
India and Serbia Aim for 1 Billion Euros Bilateral Trade Target by the End of the Decade: MEA
India and Serbia have set an ambitious target of achieving a bilateral trade volume of one billion euros by the end of the decade. President Droupadi Murmu of India and her Serbian counterpart, Aleksandar Vucic, have expressed their commitment to strengthen bilateral relations and explore new areas of cooperation. The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) highlighted the significant discussions and engagements between the two leaders during President Murmu’s visit to Serbia.
Targeting Bilateral Trade Expansion:
President Droupadi Murmu and Serbian President Aleksandar Vucic agreed to set a target for bilateral trade between the two countries to reach one billion euros, aiming to surpass the current trade volume of 32 crore Euros. The MEA Secretary-West, Sanjay Verma, confirmed this during a media briefing.
Strengthening Bilateral Relations:
Both leaders reiterated their commitment to existing agreements and explored opportunities to enhance cooperation across various sectors. They discussed the importance of upholding the rule of law, respecting sovereignty, and preserving territorial integrity. President Vucic described Serbia’s relationship with India as a fraternity and encouraged President Murmu to consider Serbia as a second motherland.
Areas of Cooperation:
President Vucic identified six major areas of cooperation for further collaboration between India and Serbia. These areas include defense and military technology cooperation, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, industrial cooperation, information technology, artificial intelligence, cultural cooperation (including film production), and cemetery graphics.
Promoting Culture, Cinema, and Tourism:
Cultural cooperation, particularly in cinema and tourism, emerged as a recurring theme in the discussions. Serbia expressed its interest in attracting Indian filmmakers for shooting and post-production activities. President Vucic highlighted the benefits of collaboration between the film industry and tourism, contributing to better mutual understanding and business relations. Serbia also offered attractive concessions, such as cashback facilities, to encourage filming in the country.
Enhancing Connectivity and Direct Flights:
President Vucic expressed his desire to establish direct air linkages between Belgrade and Delhi, acknowledging the work ethos and sincerity of Indians. He proposed several concessions and subsidies that Serbia was willing to offer to Indian airlines operating direct flights between the two countries. President Murmu assured President Vucic that India’s private civil aviation sector would be informed about these facilities.
President Murmu emphasized the need for cooperation in new areas such as science and technology, machinery, equipment, startups, and clean and renewable energy. She also highlighted the potential of skilled and semiskilled manpower from India to address human resource gaps in Serbia. The discussion also touched upon India’s spiritual heritage, including yoga and Ayurveda, which are popular in Serbia.
MP CM Shivraj Singh Chouhan launches ‘Mukhyamantri Ladli Behna Scheme’
Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan launched the Ladli Behna Yojana 2023, with the first installment of Rs 1,000 deposited into the accounts of beneficiary women in Jabalpur. CM Chouhan assured the women that the scheme was not limited to Rs 1,000 and that he intended to gradually increase the amount as funds became available, with plans to raise the support to Rs 1,200, Rs 1,500, Rs 1,700, and Rs 2,000 per month.
Mukhyamantri Ladli Behna Scheme: Key Points
The scheme, which was previously applicable to women of age 23 years and above, had now been relaxed to 21 years.
CM Chouhan emphasised his commitment to women’s welfare, stating that he would continue to increase the financial support to Rs 2,200, Rs 2,500, Rs 2,700, and eventually Rs 3,000 per month once additional funds were secured.
This announcement comes amid Congress leader Kamal Nath’s plan to provide Rs 1,500 per month to women under the Nari Samman Yojana if the Congress government comes into power.
Mukhyamantri Ladli Behna Scheme About:
Ladli Behna Yojana was launched by the Chief Minister of MP Shivraj Singh Chouhan on March 15 this year. Under this scheme, a provision has been made to send 12 thousand rupees per year i.e. 1 thousand rupees directly to the account of women. A budget provision of Rs 60 thousand crore has also been made by the state government for this scheme.
Only women of Madhya Pradesh state will be able to get the benefit of this scheme. General, OBC, Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, Abandoned or Widow women can participate in this, provided they have other eligibility which is as follows-
Women who are economically weak. Women who have less than five acres of land.
Women whose annual income is less than 2.5 lakhs.
The age of the woman should be between 23 to 60 years.
About Madhya Pradesh:
Madhya Pradesh (MP) is located in central India and is the second-largest state in the country in terms of area (after Rajasthan).
The total area of MP is approximately 308,245 square kilometers.
The state is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna, including several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries such as Kanha National Park, Bandhavgarh National Park, and Pench Tiger Reserve.
Agriculture is the primary occupation in MP, and the state is known for its production of crops such as wheat, rice, soybean, maize, and cotton.
MP is also a major producer of minerals such as coal, limestone, mica, and bauxite, among others.
The state has several important cities including the capital, Bhopal, and the commercial hub, Indore.