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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-12th May 2023

International Nurses Day 2023 Observed on 12th May

International Nurses Day 2023

International Nurses Day is observed on the 12th of May every year to commemorate the birth of Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing, who was born on May 12, 1820. Nightingale was a British nurse, statistician, and social reformer who lay the foundation for what we see as modern nursing – a structured, methodical process of nursing the sick back to health. International Nurses Day is a Global celebration that acknowledges and celebrates the commitment and bravery of nurses around the world.

Nurses Day Theme 2023

The theme for International Nurses Day 2023 is ‘Our Nurses. Our Future.’ It recognizes the invaluable contributions of nurses globally and highlights their vital role in shaping the future of healthcare. This day serves as a global celebration of nurses, honoring their commitment, bravery, and dedication. It emphasizes the importance of showing equal respect and gratitude to nurses worldwide for their tireless efforts in providing quality healthcare and improving patient outcomes.

Significance of International Nurses Day 2023

The significance of International Nurses Day lies in its ability to raise awareness about the contributions and challenges of the nursing profession. It offers an opportunity to acknowledge and appreciate the tireless work of nurses. The day also allows nurses to take pride in their profession, recognizing the crucial role they play in the healthcare system. On International Nurses Day, the International Council of Nurses prepares the International Nurses’ Kit, which contains educational.

History of International Nurses Day

The history of International Nurses Day dates back to 1974 when the International Council of Nurses officially declared May 12 as a day to celebrate nurses worldwide. This day recognizes the dedication and compassionate care provided by nurses, who serve as the primary caregivers for patients. The kindness and empathy shown by nurses often contribute to patients’ well-being and recovery.

Anti-Dumping Duty on Optical Fiber Imports proposed by DGTR

Anti-Dumping Duty on Optical Fiber Imports proposed by DGTR

The Directorate General of Trade Remedies (DGTR), which is a branch of the commerce ministry, has proposed the implementation of an anti-dumping tax on a specific type of optical fiber imported from China, Korea, and Indonesia to protect the local industry from low-priced foreign shipments.

Anti-Dumping Duty on Optical Fiber Imports proposed by DGTR: Key Points

  • After investigating the dumped imports of “dispersion unshifted single-mode optical fiber” from these countries, DGTR has suggested the duty.

  • This product is typically utilized for high-data-rate, long-distance, and access network transportation.

  • Birla Furukawa Fibre Optics Pvt. Ltd. had requested an anti-dumping inquiry on this product from these nations on behalf of the local industry, claiming that the dumped imports were causing significant harm to the domestic industry and requested the imposition of duties.

  • DGTR’s investigation discovered that the local industry had suffered significant damage due to the dumped imports.

  • The applicant was required to sell the product at a price lower than its cost of production, resulting in losses and negatively impacting the profitability of the domestic industry, according to a notification issued by DGTR.

Recommendations of DGTR

  • The authority has suggested that definitive anti-dumping duties be implemented to address the harm inflicted on the domestic industry.

  • The recommended duty ranges from $122 per kfkm to $857.23 per kfkm, with the commodity being traded in fkm (fibre kilometres).

  • The DGTR, which is a part of the commerce ministry, provides the recommendation, while the finance ministry makes the final decision to impose the duty within three months of the recommendation.

  • The purpose of anti-dumping probes initiated by countries is to examine whether their domestic industries have been negatively impacted by an increase in imports sold below cost.

  • Duties are imposed within the framework of the World Trade Organization’s multilateral system as a countermeasure.

  • Anti-dumping measures are intended to ensure equitable trade and a level playing field for domestic industries, not to limit imports or unduly raise product costs.

Ministry of Ayush and ICMR sign an MoU to promote and collaborate on integrative health research

The Ministry of Ayush and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to promote and collaborate on integrative health research. This cooperation is a significant step towards providing scientific evidence to the Ayush system of medicines and creating a niche for traditional medicine knowledge.

Areas of Focus:

The MoU will focus on identified areas of national importance in healthcare, promoting high-impact research to generate evidence utilizing modern scientific methods. The cooperation will also strengthen research capacity through the training of Ayush researchers.

Establishment of Ayush-ICMR Centers for Advanced Research:

The MoU will enable both parties to jointly establish Ayush-ICMR Centers for Advanced Research in Integrative Health at all AIIMS with co-funding. These centers will allow the parties to explore the possibility of conducting high-quality clinical trials jointly on identified areas/disease conditions of national importance with promising therapies of Ayush system to generate evidence for wider acceptance.

Joint Working Group and Research Capacity Building:

Both parties have agreed to establish a joint working group that will meet quarterly for exploring further areas of collaboration and work on deliverables, formulate and implement joint research projects/programs, and allow joint supervision of the activities.

One of the essential aspects of this MoU is related to building research capacity, which will be led by ICMR for Ayush researchers. It will develop a curriculum, facilitate the development and delivery of training modules. The Ministry of Ayush and ICMR will also design and conduct conferences/workshops/seminars jointly with active participation of researchers interested in the field of Integrative healthcare.

Inclusion of Research on Integrative Medicine:

The MoU will facilitate looking at the possibility of inclusion of research on Integrative Medicine in the “National ethical guidelines for biomedical and health research involving human participants” by ICMR-DHR.

Inter-ministerial Convergence Meeting:

To further augment the cooperation between the Ministry of Ayush and the Minister of Health and Family Welfare, the fifth inter-ministerial convergence meeting was held. In this meeting, issues related to synergy and cooperation were discussed, and both the ministries agreed upon many important matters.

Deadline for Linking PAN with Aadhaar Extended to 30 June 2023: PFRDA

The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) has extended the deadline for linking Permanent Account Number (PAN) with Aadhaar to 30 June 2023. The Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) has also extended the date for PAN-Aadhaar linking till this date.

Consequences of Non-Compliance:

The PFRDA has warned that failure to link PAN with Aadhaar by the deadline will result in restrictions on transactions in one’s National Pension System (NPS) account. As PAN is a key identification number and part of the Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements for NPS accounts, all intermediaries are required to ensure valid KYC for all subscribers.

Fine for Late Linking:

If the linking of PAN with Aadhaar is done on or after 1 July 2023, a fine of Rs.1,000 will be levied on the user.

Who Needs to Link PAN with Aadhaar?:

As per the Income-tax Act, every person who has been allotted a PAN as of 1st July 2017 and is eligible to obtain an Aadhaar Number, is required to intimate his Aadhaar to the prescribed authority on or before 31st March 2023, on payment of a prescribed fee.

Repercussions of Non-Compliance:

Failure to link PAN with Aadhaar shall attract certain repercussions under the Income-tax Act from 1st April 2023.

What Happens If You Miss the Deadline?

If the PAN-Aadhaar linkage is not completed by 30 June 2023, the user’s PAN will become inactive from 1 July 2023. In such a case, no refunds will be made against such PANs, interest will not be payable on such refunds, and TDS and TCS shall be deducted/collected at a higher rate as provided in the Act.

To make the PAN operational again, the user needs to inform the appropriate authority and pay a cost of Rs.1,000 after 30 days.

About Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA), Key Points:

The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) is a statutory body that regulates and develops the pension sector in India. Here are some key points about PFRDA:

  1. Establishment: PFRDA was established in August 2003 by the Government of India as a regulatory body for the pension sector.

  2. Objective: The primary objective of PFRDA is to promote and regulate the development of the pension industry and to protect the interests of subscribers to pension schemes.

  3. Jurisdiction: PFRDA has jurisdiction over all pension funds in India, including the National Pension System (NPS), which is a defined contribution pension system for government employees and individuals in the private sector.

  4. Functions: PFRDA’s functions include formulating policies, regulating and supervising pension funds, promoting pension awareness, and developing and promoting pension products.

  5. NPS: PFRDA manages the NPS, which is a market-linked, defined contribution pension scheme that offers subscribers the flexibility to choose their investment options and fund managers.

India, Canada agree to increase discussions on movement of skilled professionals, students

India and Canada have agreed to ramp up their discussions on the movement of skilled professionals and students to enhance their bilateral economic partnership. This decision was made during the sixth India-Canada Ministerial Dialogue on Trade and Investment, where Commerce and Industry Minister Piyush Goyal and his Canadian counterpart Mary Ng reviewed the progress of the seven rounds of negotiations towards an early harvest trade deal.

Towards a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement:

Recognising the need for a comprehensive trade agreement that can create new opportunities for boosting trade and investment flows, the India-Canada Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) negotiations were formally re-launched last year. Both nations decided that an early progress trade agreement (EPTA) would be a transitional step towards the CEPA. The EPTA is expected to cover commitments in goods, services, investment, rules of origin, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, technical barriers to trade, and dispute settlement, and may also cover other areas where mutual agreement is reached.

Coordinated Investment Promotion and Information Exchange:

In addition to the EPTA, India and Canada also agreed to enhance cooperation for coordinated investment promotion and information exchange. Both nations aim to sign a pact regarding the same towards the end of 2023. Canadian Minister Mary Ng announced that she would lead a Team Canada trade mission to India in October 2023, which will present an opportunity to further the trade and investment ties between the two countries as she is likely to bring a big business delegation for the same.

Relaunching the Canada-India CEO Forum:

During the meeting, both ministers also held discussions on relaunching the Canada-India CEO Forum. India also invited top Canadian universities to set up their campuses in the country.

Boosting Bilateral Trade:

Canada was India’s 35th largest trading partner during April-February (2022-34), with total trade amounting to $7.5 billion. India’s exports to Canada stood at $3.8 billion during April-February as against $3.76 billion in 2021-22. Major items of Indian exports include medicines, garments, diamonds, chemicals, gems and jewellery, seafood, engineering goods, rice, and electric equipment, among others.

Imports from Canada stood at $3.77 billion during the 11-month period last year as against $2 billion in 2021-22. Key imports include pulses, fertilisers, aircraft and aviation equipment, diamonds, copper ores and concentrates, bituminous coal, among others.

Cooperation in Sectors:

The two countries also discussed ways to increase cooperation in sectors such as agricultural goods, chemicals, green technologies, infrastructure, automotive, clean energy, electronics, and minerals and metals. Both nations emphasised enhancing cooperation in sectors such as clean technologies for infrastructure development, critical minerals, electric vehicles and batteries, renewable energy/hydrogen, and artificial intelligence.

Some key points about Canada:

  • Canada is a North American country with a population of over 38 million people.

  • Its capital city is Ottawa, located in the province of Ontario.

  • The official languages of Canada are English and French.

  • The Canadian dollar (CAD) is the official currency of Canada.

  • Canada has a federal system of government, with a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy. The current Prime Minister of Canada is Justin Trudeau.

  • Canada is the second-largest country in the world by land area, covering approximately 9.98 million square kilometers.

  • The country has a diverse economy that includes industries such as natural resources, manufacturing, and services.

  • Canada is known for its natural beauty, with popular tourist destinations including Niagara Falls, Banff National Park, and the Canadian Rockies.

  • Canada is a member of several international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, and the G7.

Supreme Court Rules Delhi Government has Control Over IAS and All Services in Delhi except Land, Police, and Law and Order

In a significant judgment, the Supreme Court has granted control over all services in the national capital, including the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), to the Delhi government, except for those related to land, police, and law and order. The Constitution Bench comprising Chief Justice of India DY Chandrachud and Justices MR Shah, Krishna Murari, Hima Kohli, and PS Narasimha passed a unanimous judgment on the matter.

Explanation Behind the Decision:

The Court explained that the legislative power of NCT Delhi extends to IAS and that it will have control over them, even if they are not recruited by the NCT Delhi. However, the control does not extend to services related to land, law and order, and police. The Lieutenant Governor (LG) shall be bound by the decision of NCT Delhi over services apart from land, police, and law and order.

The Court justified its decision by stating that the LG shall exercise powers under the administrative role as entrusted by the President. The executive administration can only extend to matters that fall outside the scope of the legislative assembly. It cannot mean administration over the entire NCT Delhi. Otherwise, the purpose of having a separate elected body in Delhi will be rendered futile.

Importance of Democratically Elected Government:

The Court stated that a democratically elected government shall have control over its officers. If a democratically elected government is not allowed to control its officers and hold them to account, then its responsibility towards the legislature and public is diluted. If officers are not responding to the government, the collective responsibility is diluted. If officers feel they are insulated from the elected government, they feel they are not accountable.

Power of State or Union Territory:

The judgment stated that while a state or union territory has the power to make laws on subjects under the Concurrent List, the same will be subject to the existing Central law. At the same time, it has to be ensured that the governance of states is not taken over by the Central government. The Court went on to hold that sub-clause (b) of Article 239AA clarifies that Parliament has the power to legislate on any subject related to the NCT in any of the three lists. If there is a repugnancy between law enacted by legislative assembly and law enacted by the Central government, the former will be rendered void, it stated.

Background of the Case:

The case arose in 2018 when a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court had interpreted Article 239AA of the Constitution, which contains special provisions with respect to the National Capital Territory (NCT). The peculiar status of the NCT and the powers of the Delhi Legislative Assembly and the LG and their interplay were debated in the case.

The Court in that judgment had ruled that the LG cannot act independently without the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers, and has to work harmoniously with the NCT government. The appeals relating to individual aspects including services were then placed before a regular bench for adjudication based on the Constitution Bench judgment.

The regular bench had on April 14, 2019, pronounced its verdict on various individual aspects relating to the tussle between the Delhi government and the LG. However, the two judges on the Bench – Justices AK Sikri and Ashok Bhushan – had differed on the issue of ‘services’ under Schedule VII, List II, Entry 41 of the Constitution of India.

About Delhi, key points:

  • Delhi is the capital of India and is a union territory.

  • It is governed by the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) which consists of an elected legislative assembly and a council of ministers.

  • The Chief Minister of Delhi is the head of the government and is appointed by the Lieutenant Governor (LG) who is the representative of the President of India. Current CM: Arvind Kejriwal

  • The LG of Delhi has powers over land, police, and law and order while the remaining services are under the control of the Delhi government. Current Lieutenant Governor: Vinai Kumar Saxena.

  • The LG is appointed by the President of India and holds executive power over the territory.

  • Delhi is part of the National Capital Region (NCR) which includes areas around it in the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan.

  • The NCR is a planning region and is governed by the National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) which is chaired by the Union Minister of Urban Development.

  • The NCRPB was set up to ensure that planning and development in the NCR are coordinated and integrated.

  • Delhi has three municipal corporations which are responsible for providing civic services in the city.

  • The power supply in Delhi is managed by the Delhi Electricity Regulatory Commission (DERC) which regulates the tariffs and other aspects of electricity supply in the city.

  • Delhi Police is a law enforcement agency that comes under the jurisdiction of the Government of India’s Ministry of Home Affairs. It is responsible for maintaining law and order in the National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the Delhi government has limited control over the Delhi Police as it is a matter of the Centre’s jurisdiction. The Delhi Police is headed by a Commissioner of Police who reports to the Lieutenant Governor of Delhi.

India hosts the first-ever physical Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Startup Forum in New Delhi

India recently hosted the third edition of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Startup Forum in the form of the first-ever physical event in New Delhi. The event was organized by Startup India, the Department of Promotion for Industry and Internal Trade under the Ministry of Commerce. The forum aimed to expand startup interactions among SCO Member States and encourage innovation, employment generation, and talent building.

Keynote Address by Union Minister of State, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Shri Som Parkash:

The forum witnessed physical participation from SCO Member States, including a delegation of government officials, private industry players, incubators, and startups. Union Minister of State, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Shri Som Parkash delivered the keynote address, highlighting the role of the startup ecosystem in boosting the economy of a nation.

Smt. Manmeet Kaur Nanda, Joint Secretary, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, addressed the delegation about India’s startup journey and initiatives for promoting startups by the Government of India.

Collaboration and Entrepreneurship at the SCO Startup Forum:

The SCO Startup Forum focused on collaboration and entrepreneurship. It aimed to promote innovation development, particularly through the creation of common platforms and the facilitation of ideas and best practices among the SCO Member States. The forum facilitated various startup-to-startup bilateral meetings to promote and achieve this agenda.

Workshop on the Role of Bilateral and Multilateral Engagements in Developing Startup Ecosystem:

The delegates attended a workshop conducted by Startup India on the “Role of Bilateral and Multilateral Engagements in Developing Startup Ecosystem.” The workshop included an interactive session to understand various models of engagements that can be undertaken to develop closer ties between nations and boost the startup ecosystem in SCO nations.

Visit to Foundation for Innovation and Technology Transfer (FITT) at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi:

The delegation also visited the Foundation for Innovation and Technology Transfer (FITT) at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi, where a startup showcase was organized. The participants visited the facility to receive first-hand experience of the Indian startup ecosystem. The incubator visit focused on highlighting the nuances of funding, mentorship, and opportunities provided to support startups at the scaling stage in India.

Previous Initiatives by Startup India for SCO Member States:

Startup India had previously organized various initiatives for SCO Member states, including the SCO Startup Forum 2020, which laid the foundation for multilateral cooperation and engagement for startups among the SCO Member States. The SCO Startup Forum 2021 was held virtually through a customized platform representing Indian culture in augmented reality. It launched the SCO Startup Hub, a single point of contact for the SCO startup ecosystem. Startup India also organized a three-month-long virtual mentorship series called “Starting-Up” for nominated startups to build capacity among the SCO startup founders.


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