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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-12th October 2023

What is the Digital India Act 2023?

The recent introduction of the Digital India Act 2023 (DIA) is a noteworthy stride towards creating a forward-looking legal framework capable of accommodating the growing digital landscape within the country. This initiative, led by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITY), demonstrates a proactive stance in governing and molding India’s digital future.

What is the Digital India Act 2023?

The Digital India Act 2023 aims to harmonize and consolidate digital laws in India, working alongside other key legislation like the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, National Data Governance Policy and Indian Penal Code amendments for cybercrime. Together, these laws create a framework to govern India’s digital realm.

Key Objectives of Digital India Act 2023

The Digital India Act 2023 is a forward-looking legal framework designed to cater to India’s burgeoning digital economy. Its key objectives include:

  • Evolvable Rules: The DIA aims to establish adaptable rules that can keep pace with the ever-changing technological landscapes, ensuring they remain relevant and effective.

  • Online Adjudication: The act provides an easily accessible adjudicatory mechanism for addressing online civil and criminal offenses, delivering timely remedies and enforcing the rule of law on the internet.

  • Legislative Framework: It sets a legislative framework to ensure compliance with overreaching governing principles.

Salient Features of Digital India Act 2023

  • DIA replaces the outdated Information Technology Act of 2000 to address contemporary internet and technology challenges.

  • DIA focuses on online safety, trust and accountability while regulating emerging technologies like AI and blockchain.

  • Collaborates with related laws and policies, including the Digital Personal Data Protection Act and National Data Governance Policy.

  • Reviews the ‘safe harbor’ principle, ensuring online platforms are accountable for user-generated content.

  • Enforces stringent Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements for retail wearable devices, backed by legal sanctions.

  • Aligns with Digital India Goals for 2026, targeting a USD 1 trillion digital economy and global technology leadership.

Key Components of Digital India Act 2023

The main components associated with the Digital India Act 2023 are as follows:

  • Open Internet: The DIA 2023 promotes an open internet characterized by choice, competition, diversity and fair market access, preventing the concentration of power and gatekeeping.

  • Online Safety and Trust: It focuses on safeguarding users against cyber threats, revenge porn, defamation, cyberbullying and dark web activities. The act introduces digital rights like the Right to be Forgotten and the Right to Digital Inheritance, protecting minors and moderating fake news.

  • Accountability: The DIA 2023 makes internet users and activities more accountable by introducing mechanisms for redressal of complaints, upholding constitutional rights, ensuring algorithmic transparency, conducting periodic risk assessments and enforcing data disclosure norms.

Need for Digital India Act 2023

  • Outdates Regulations: The existing IT Act of 2000 was crafted in an era when the internet had only 5 million users and is ill-equipped to handle the internet’s current state.

  • Inadequacy of Current Regulations: Despite some regulatory elements, they are insufficient for governing new-age technologies.

  • Need for Legal Adaptation: The legal framework must evolve to address challenges posed by advancements like AI, Blockchain and IoT, enhance cybersecurity and regulate emerging tech sectors.

  • Addressing E-commerce and Online Content: The growth of e-commerce, digital transactions and online content sharing requires updated regulations.

  • Global Alignment: To effectively engage in the global digital landscape, India’s regulations must align with international standards.

Challenges in implementing Digital India Act 2023

  • Regulations may place a significant burden on businesses, especially SMEs.

  • Striking a balance between regulation and freedom of expression is delicate.

  • Effective enforcement will require substantial resources, expertise and infrastructure.

  • Balancing the interests of various stakeholders poses a challenge.

  • Some provisions may grant excessive surveillance powers, compromising privacy rights.

  • The approach to data localization may disrupt cross-border data flows.

India’s Net Direct Tax Collections Surge by 21.8%, Surpassing Half of Budget Projections

India has witnessed a remarkable increase in its net direct tax collections, with a substantial growth rate of 21.8% amounting to ₹9.57 lakh crore by October 9. This surge has exceeded over half of the annual Budget estimates. The boost is primarily attributed to a 32.5% rise in personal income tax revenues and a 12.4% increase in corporate taxes.

Factors Driving the Surge:

  1. Strong Personal Income Tax Growth: Personal income tax collections have seen a remarkable upswing of 32.5%. This highlights the robust contribution of individual taxpayers to the country’s tax revenue.

  2. Corporations Contribute Significantly: Corporate taxes have also played a crucial role in this tax collection surge, showing a healthy increase of 12.4%. This reflects the resilience of India’s corporate sector.

Challenges and Refunds:

  1. Withheld Refunds: Tax refunds amounting to ₹1.5 lakh crore have been disbursed to taxpayers. However, certain refunds are being withheld due to pending tax demands from the past. Taxpayers are being given an opportunity to address these pending issues.

  2. Validation Hurdles: Approximately 35 lakh taxpayers are facing difficulties related to bank account validation. This issue arises from incorrect bank branch codes provided by taxpayers, adding to the challenges in the refund process.

Refund Threshold and Outstanding Dues:

  1. Refund Threshold: For refunds up to ₹5,000, the Income Tax (IT) department is not imposing restrictions. However, for amounts exceeding this threshold, taxpayers are informed about any outstanding tax dues.

  2. Legacy Tax Demands: Some tax demands date back to as early as 2010-11. These could be legacy cases from the transition period when the department shifted from manual registers to an online system for recording assessment orders.

Technology Shift and Resolution:

  1. Reasons for Pending Demands: The pending tax demands may be attributed to the technological transition or errors made by tax officers in updating demands. Taxpayers are being encouraged to respond to queries. If they agree with the demand, it is adjusted against the refund. If contested, further actions are taken based on the data provided by taxpayers to update the system.

  2. Impact on Refunds: This procedural issue is responsible for holding up some tax refunds, emphasizing the need for a streamlined resolution process.

Filing Statistics:

  1. Filing Trends: As of September 23, a total of 7.09 crore income tax returns were filed, with 2.75 crore refunds already issued. By October 9, the number of filed returns had increased to 7.27 crore, and 7.15 crore returns were verified. In the previous year, 7.5 crore tax returns were filed, indicating steady tax compliance.

Budget Projections:

  1. Impressive Collection: The current direct tax collection, excluding refunds, accounts for 52.5% of the annual Budget estimates. Gross collections have reached ₹11.07 lakh crore, marking an 18% growth compared to the same period in the previous year. Corporate tax collections have grown by 7.3%, and personal income tax revenues have increased by 29.5%.

  2. Securities Transaction Tax: In addition to direct taxes, revenues from the Securities Transaction Tax have contributed significantly. The personal income tax kitty has experienced growth of 29.1% at the gross revenue level and 31.85% in net revenues.

India & Switzerland Celebrated 75 Yrs Of Friendship

India and Switzerland recently celebrated 75 years of their enduring friendship and fruitful collaboration in a beautiful Kumaon village nestled in the Uttarakhand region of India. The three-day event, aptly named ‘Swiss Himalayan Bounty,’ unfolded last week at a charming homestay in Satoli village, positioned at an altitude of 6,000 feet near Mukteshwar in the Nainital district. This celebration saw the convergence of participants representing various NGOs, stakeholders, and beneficiaries of the longstanding partnership between these two nations.

Empowering Rural Women: The Triumph of Collaboration

A significant focus of the celebration was the showcase of the remarkable achievements of rural women in the Champawat district who have reaped the benefits of projects supported by the Switzerland-based organization, Swiss Himalayan Amity (SHA). SHA’s involvement in the region revolves around four distinct programs: Aarohi, Arogya, Alaap, and Cankids. These programs are designed to provide crucial support in the domains of education, healthcare, and reforestation.

Aarogya: A Beacon of Maternal and Child Healthcare

One of the standout accomplishments under SHA’s aegis is the Arogya project, which established a model delivery point at a community health center in the Pati block of Champawat district. The success of this endeavor has led to the establishment of another similar facility, further emphasizing the commitment to improving maternal and child healthcare in the region. Sushil Sharma, the driving force behind the Arogya project, shared this encouraging development with pride.

Smokeless ‘Chulhas’ and Rural Midwives: A Holistic Approach

Robert Graf, the head of SHA, outlined the organization’s holistic approach to uplift the hill communities of Uttarakhand. He emphasized their efforts to promote the use of smokeless ‘chulhas’ (stoves) in the region, addressing both health and environmental concerns. Additionally, SHA has been actively engaged in programs aimed at educating and empowering midwives in rural areas. These initiatives underscore the multifaceted nature of the collaboration between India and Switzerland.

A Diverse Gathering

Among the attendees who graced the celebration were notable figures such as Kamal Musale, a Swiss-Indian filmmaker, historian Shekhar Pathak, and photographer Anup Shah. Their presence served as a testament to the rich cultural exchange and the enduring bond between these two nations.

The ‘Swiss Himalayan Bounty’ event not only celebrated the past 75 years of fruitful cooperation but also laid the foundation for continued collaboration between India and Switzerland. With a focus on sustainable development, healthcare, and empowerment, this enduring partnership promises to bring forth even more success stories in the years to come.

India To Observe 10 Oct As Good Manufacturing Practice Day

The Indian government, in collaboration with the Indian Drugs Manufacturers’ Association (IDMA), is set to observe the first-ever National Current Good Manufacturing Practice Day (cGMP Day) on 10th October. This initiative aims to underscore the importance of adhering to cGMP guidelines in pharmaceutical manufacturing, with a focus on improving product quality and ensuring patient safety.

The Significance of cGMP Guidelines

Current Good Manufacturing Practices, commonly referred to as cGMP, are stringent quality standards mandated by the World Health Organization (WHO) for pharmaceutical manufacturing. These guidelines serve as the backbone of pharmaceutical operations, providing essential standards to enhance product quality by regulating various aspects of the manufacturing process, including materials, methods, machinery, processes, personnel, facilities, and environmental conditions.

The Current Situation

In recent years, India’s pharmaceutical industry has faced criticism and regulatory scrutiny due to multiple reports of poor-quality cough syrups causing harm to consumers, especially children, in importing countries. These incidents have not only compromised the industry’s reputation but have also raised concerns about patient safety worldwide. As a response to these challenges, the Indian government has made it mandatory for all drug manufacturers to adhere to cGMP guidelines.

The Proposed Amendment in Schedule M

Currently, cGMP guidelines fall under Schedule M of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. However, there is a proposed amendment that will make these guidelines applicable to all pharmaceutical firms. This amendment reflects a commitment to raising the bar for pharmaceutical quality across the industry.

Challenges and Opportunities

India is home to approximately 10,500 drug manufacturing units, yet only around 2,000 of them hold WHO GMP certification. This stark difference highlights the existing gap in quality standards and the need for widespread compliance with cGMP guidelines.

Under the proposed amendment to Schedule M, the government has given large pharmaceutical companies (with a turnover exceeding ₹250 crore) a six-month period to implement upgraded GMP standards. Smaller enterprises falling under the MSME category (below ₹250 crore turnover) will have 12 months to comply with the revised standards. This transition period reflects the government’s commitment to supporting the industry in achieving higher quality standards.

Participation and Collaboration

The inaugural National cGMP Day on 10th October is expected to bring together senior officials from India’s health ministry, the United States Food and Drug Administration, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, CDSCO (Central Drugs Standard Control Organization), pharmacy schools, and academia. This collaborative effort aims to create awareness about the significance of cGMP guidelines and foster a culture of quality within the pharmaceutical industry.

International Day of the Girl Child 2023: History, Date, Significance and Theme

The International Day of the Girl, observed every year on October 11, is a global initiative dedicated to raising awareness about gender inequality and advocating for the rights and empowerment of girls. This article explores the significance, history, and theme of the International Day of the Girl 2023.

The Origins of International Day of the Girl

The International Day of the Girl was first celebrated in 2012. This day was established to focus attention on the unique challenges girls face and to promote their empowerment and the fulfillment of their human rights. The day was born out of the recognition that girls, like boys, deserve equal opportunities and rights.

International Day of the Girl 2023: Theme

The theme for the International Day of the Girl in 2023 is “Invest in Girls’ Rights: Our Leadership, Our Well-being.” This theme emphasizes the need to invest in girls, recognizing that their leadership and well-being are crucial for a fairer and more equal future.

Historical Significance

Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action

In 1995, the World Conference on Women held in Beijing resulted in a landmark achievement. Countries unanimously adopted the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, a progressive blueprint for advancing the rights of women and girls. This declaration was a pivotal moment as it was the first international document to explicitly call out the rights of girls.

The Rights of Girls

The United Nations underscores that girls have the inherent right to a safe, educated, and healthy life. This right is not just limited to their formative years but extends into their adulthood. Empowering girls during their adolescent years can have a profound impact on their ability to change the world. They can be today’s empowered girls and tomorrow’s leaders, workers, mothers, entrepreneurs, mentors, household heads, and political leaders.

Investment in Girls

Investing in adolescent girls is an investment in a brighter and more equitable future. It is a commitment to ensuring that half of humanity has an equal stake in addressing critical global challenges, including climate change, political conflicts, economic growth, disease prevention, and sustainable development.

The Role of Gender Equality in Sustainable Development

Achieving gender equality and empowering women and girls is an integral part of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by world leaders in 2015 as part of the Agenda for Sustainable Development 2030. Recognizing the rights of women and girls across all these goals is fundamental to achieving justice and inclusion, creating economies that work for all, and sustaining a shared environment for current and future generations.

IMF Raises India’s FY24 GDP Growth Forecast to 6.3%

In its October 2023 World Economic Outlook (WEO) report, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) raised India’s economic growth forecast for the fiscal year 2023-24. The growth projection was increased from 6.1% to 6.3% due to stronger-than-expected consumption during April-June. The report also highlighted India’s resilient domestic economic activity and the positive impact of robust domestic demand, contrasting global economic trends.

IMF World Economic Outlook (WEO) report: Key Points

  1. GDP Growth Projection: The IMF revised India’s GDP growth forecast to 6.3% for both 2023 and 2024, indicating a 0.2 percentage points upward revision for 2023. This adjustment was attributed to the nation’s strong consumption patterns during the specified period.

  2. Inflation Outlook: The IMF anticipated retail inflation in India to rise to 5.5% in fiscal 2023-24 before easing to 4.6% in 2024-25. This projection aligns with the Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI) inflation target over the medium term.

  3. RBI’s Projections: The RBI’s projections for the current fiscal year included a consumer price index (CPI)-based inflation rate of 5.4% and a GDP growth rate of 6.5%. The IMF’s report endorsed these projections and emphasized the consistency of monetary policy measures in achieving the RBI’s inflation target.

  4. Economic Performance: India’s economy exhibited resilience, expanding by 7.8% in April-June, surpassing market expectations. Private consumption played a significant role, growing at a rate of 6.0% compared to 2.8% in the preceding quarter (January-March).

  5. Global Economic Landscape: The IMF’s report highlighted challenges faced by other major economies, such as China and the euro area. While the United States demonstrated a remarkable recovery, the euro area’s output remained 2.2% below pre-pandemic projections due to factors like the war in Ukraine and spikes in energy prices.

  6. Global Growth Forecast: Despite the strong performance of the US economy, the overall global growth remained low and uneven. The IMF maintained the global real GDP growth forecast at 3% for 2023 but revised down its 2024 forecast to 2.9% from the previous 3%, citing uncertainties in the international economic landscape.

  7. Current Account Deficit: The IMF anticipated India’s current account deficit to remain at 1.8% of GDP in FY24 and FY25, indicating a stable external economic position for the nation.

World Mental Health Day 2023: Date, Theme and History

World Mental Health Day on October 10th is a global initiative that brings organizations and individuals together to commemorate the importance of mental well-being. By recognizing mental health as a universal human right and taking action to uphold this right, we can collectively strive for a world where mental health is valued, promoted, and protected for all. This occasion serves to enhance knowledge, raise awareness, and drive actions that promote and protect the mental health of all individuals as a fundamental human right.

Significance of World Mental Health Day 2023

Mental health is an inherent human right that belongs to everyone, regardless of their background or location. This right encompasses protection from mental health risks, access to available, accessible, acceptable, and high-quality care, and the pursuit of liberty, independence, and inclusion within the community.

The Importance of Good Mental Health

Good mental health is integral to overall well-being, impacting physical health, social connections, and livelihoods. Alarming statistics reveal that one in eight individuals globally lives with mental health conditions, with a rising prevalence among adolescents and young people.

Upholding Human Rights for Individuals with Mental Health Conditions

A critical aspect of recognizing mental health as a universal human right is ensuring that individuals with mental health conditions are not deprived of their rights or excluded from decisions concerning their health. Unfortunately, human rights violations against individuals with mental health conditions persist worldwide, including discrimination and exclusion from community life.

Access to Quality Mental Health Care

A significant challenge is the limited access to necessary mental health care services. Many individuals cannot access the care they require, and in some cases, the care they do receive may violate their human rights.

World Health Organization’s Role

The World Health Organization (WHO) continues to collaborate with its partners to promote and protect mental health as a basic human right. WHO is committed to taking urgent actions to ensure that everyone can exercise their human rights and access high-quality mental health care.

Join the World Mental Health Day 2023 Campaign

You are encouraged to participate in the World Mental Health Day 2023 campaign to learn more about your basic right to mental health and how to advocate for and protect the rights of others.

World Mental Health Day Theme 2023

World Mental Health Day 2023 provides a platform for individuals and communities to unite under the theme “Mental health is a universal human right.” The theme of World Mental Health Day 2023 serves as a catalyst for individuals and communities to address mental health challenges. Its primary objectives include boosting public awareness of mental health issues and facilitating support for those struggling with them. The theme encourages a deeper understanding of mental health conditions and the rights associated with them.

World Mental Health Day 2023 seeks to raise global awareness of the significance of mental health as a universal human right. The initiative aims to inspire individuals and communities to take proactive steps in supporting and safeguarding the mental health of all individuals, regardless of their circumstances.

Historical Background of World Mental Health Day

Founding of World Mental Health Day

World Mental Health Day was established by the World Federation for Mental Health (WFMH) in 1992. The initiative was spearheaded by Richard Hunter, the deputy secretary-general at the time.

Inaugural Theme

The first World Mental Health Day, held in 1994, featured the theme “Improving the Quality of Mental Health Services Throughout the World.” This campaign generated feedback reports from 27 countries and led to the inception of national mental health campaigns in Australia and England.


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