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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-1st July 2023

What is Uniform Civil Code in India? Know History, articles and more

Uniform Civil Code in India: The Uniform Civil Code, also known as the UCC, is a proposed law in India to create and execute personal laws of citizens that are applicable to all people regardless of their gender, sexual orientation, or religion. Currently, the religious texts of different communities regulate their personal laws.

Uniform Civil Code In India History

  • The British government’s 1835 report on colonial India, which emphasized the need for uniformity in the codification of Indian law with regard to crimes, evidence, and contracts and specifically suggested that personal laws of Hindus and Muslims be kept outside of such codification, is where the UCC first emerged.

  • The government was forced to create the B N Rau Committee in 1941 to codify Hindu law due to an increase in legislation addressing personal concerns at the end of British rule. Examining the issue of whether common Hindu laws are necessary was the Hindu Law Committee’s responsibility.

  • According to the committee’s recommendation, which was based on the scriptures, women would have equal rights under a codified version of Hindu law. The 1937 Act was reviewed, and the committee suggested establishing a civil code for Hindu marriage and succession.

Why is Uniform Civil Code is Proposed in Rajya Sabha?

The BJP member Kirodi Lal Meena submitted a bill in the upper house that would create a commission to draught a UCC. The Bill was introduced by Meena with the intention of being implemented nationwide. The bill was introduced in Rajya Sabha because it mentioned creating a national inspection and investigation commission to create a uniform civil code.

Uniform Civil Code: Why Muslims and other conservative groups are against it?

Muslim organisations, and other conservative religious groups and sects continue to debate the Uniform Civil Code, surrounding secularism in Indian politics in defence of sharia and religious practises. Personal laws govern marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, and maintenance. They are distinct from public laws.

Uniform Civil Code in India: What are the main arguments?

  • The primary argument against a UCC is that it infringes on the right of citizens to practise the religion of their choice, which enables religious communities to adhere to their own local laws. For instance, Article 25 guarantees the autonomy of every religious organisation. They are entitled to maintain their unique culture under Article 29.

  • The fundamental rights subcommittee of the Indian Constituent Assembly purposefully omitted the inclusion of a UCC as a fundamental right. Tribal organisations have expressed a similar worry, such as the Rashtriya Adivasi Ekta Parishad, which petitioned the Supreme Court in 2016 to request protection for its members’ traditions and religious beliefs from a future UCC. Customary rules already in place take precedence over federal laws in Nagaland’s tribal districts when it comes to private matters like marriage, property ownership, etc.

  • It is stated that “one nation, one law” cannot be applied to the unique personal laws of different communities if codified civil laws and criminal laws like the CrPC and IPC do not adhere to this principle. For instance, the governments of West Bengal and Tamil Nadu altered the federal Indian Evidence Act of 1872. Be aware that several states have various legal drinking ages when it comes to criminal law.

  • After all, personal laws were included in the Concurrent List as entry number 5, providing both the Parliament and State Assemblies the authority to enact personal laws. If the Constitution’s creators had wanted personal laws to be uniform, they would have included them on the union list and given parliament full legislative authority over them.

  • Finally, it is claimed that a UCC will impose a Hinduized code on all communities. A UCC might, for instance, have clauses that, while conforming to Hindu tradition in matters like marriage, will legally obligate members of other communities to do the same.

What is the purpose of Uniform Civil Code in India?

  • The UCC in India aims to safeguard vulnerable communities, including women and religious minorities, as envisioned by Ambedkar, while simultaneously fostering nationalistic fervour via unity.

  • When put into effect, the code will aim to make laws that are currently divided based on religious views, such as the Hindu code bill, Sharia law, and others, simpler. The code will make the complicated regulations governing marriage ceremonies, succession, inheritance, and adoptions simpler and more universal. All citizens will then be subject to the same civil law, regardless of their religious affiliation.

Uniform Civil Code in India: What does the Indian Constitution say?

Meanwhile, Articles 25-28 of the Indian Constitution, meanwhile, guarantee religious freedom to Indian citizens and permit religious organizations to conduct their own affairs. Article 44 of the Constitution requires the Indian state to apply directive principles and common law for all Indian citizens while establishing a nation’s policies.

Due to the fact that Uniform Civil Code in India does not make distinctions based on gender or sexual orientation, this draught also inspires hope for the LGBTQIA+ population in India. No applicable law in India up to this point has acknowledged same-sex marriages as legal.

Uniform Civil Code in India: When were the personal laws drafted?

For primarily Hindu and Muslim populations, personal laws were originally drafted during the British Raj. British officials decided against interfering more in this domestic matter out of concern for the community leaders’ resistance.

Goa, a state in India, was expelled from the country Due to colonial rule in the formerly Portuguese Goa and Daman, the Indian state of Goa was cut off from the rest of India but kept its common family law, known as the Goa civil code, making it the only state in India to this day with a unified civil code.

Hindu code bills were introduced after India gained its independence and largely codified and reformatted personal laws in different sects of Indian religions like Buddhists, Hindus, Jains, and Sikhs while exempting Christians, Jews, Muslims, and Parsis because they were recognised as separate communities from Hindus.

Uniform Civil Code and Shah Bano Case:

Following the Shah Bano case in 1985, UCC became an important subject of discussion in Indian politics. The issue of applying some laws to all citizens without hurting their fundamental right to freedom of religion gave rise to the discussion.

The discussion then turned to Muslim Personal Law, which allows for unilateral divorce and polygamy and is considered one of the legal ways that Sharia law is applied. UCC was again suggested, in November 2019 and March 2020, however each time it was quickly removed without being introduced in parliament.

Uniform Civil Code in India: What is the Hindu Code Bill?

After the Indian Constitution was adopted in 1951, a select committee headed by B. R. Ambedkar was convened, and they were given the Rau Committee report’s draft to review. The Hindu Code Bill was discussed for a while before it expired and was resubmitted in 1952.

The Hindu Succession Act was subsequently passed in 1956 to reform and codify the legislation governing intestate or unwilled succession among Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs. The Act updated Hindu personal law and increased property rights and ownership opportunities for women. Their father’s inheritance, it granted women property rights.

The Act of 1956’s general rules of succession state that, in the case of an intestate male death, Class I heirs succeed before Class II heirs. The Act was amended in 2005 to add more descendants, elevating women to Class I heirs. The daughter receives the exact same portion as a son.

Uniform Civil Code in India: What is the difference between civil laws and criminal laws?

Civil laws are impacted by faith, although criminal laws in India are uniform and apply to all people equally, regardless of their religious views. The personal laws which govern in civil disputes have always been applied in accordance with constitutional standards, despite being swayed by religious scriptures.

Uniform Civil Code in India: What are personal laws?

Laws that are relevant to a particular group of people based on their caste, religion, faith, and beliefs, are made after careful examination of traditional practices and religious scriptures. Hindu and Muslim personal law derives from and is governed by the sacred books of their respective religions.

Hinduism recognises the application of personal laws to cases involving legal matters such as inheritance, succession, marriage, adoption, co-parenting, sons’ duty to settle their father’s debts, the division of family property, maintenance, guardianship, and charity contributions.

Islam has personal rules that are based on the Quran that govern issues including pre-emption, guardianship, guardianship, marriage, wakfs, dowry, inheritance, wills, succession, legacies, and marriage.

India climbs to 100th spot in latest FIFA Men’s Football rankings

The Indian men’s national football team has climbed up to the 100th rank on FIFA’s latest world rankings surpassing teams like Lebanon and New Zealand to achieve the feat. This is after five years that the Indian men’s football team entered the top 100 club after slipping away from the 96th position in 2018. The Indian men’s football team reached the 100th rank with a total points of 1204.90. This is the fourth best ranking achieved by the Indian men’s football team in the history. The team’s rank came up to 94th rank in 1996, 99th in 1993 and 96th rank in 2017 to 2018.

Pakistan is ranked 201, among the last teams in the FIFA rankings. Other South Asian football teams are also way below India like Sri Lanka is ranked 207, Bangladesh at 192, and Nepal at 175. India will be hoping to continue their dominance over the SAFF in the semi-finals which will be played in Bengaluru. Since 1993, India has entered all finals of the tournament except in 2003. The Indian men’s football team has won the championship record 8 times and is doing exceptionally well in the search for their 9th title.

Top 10 teams

  • Notably, FIFA World Cup 2022 winners Argentina are the top-ranked team with 1843.73 points followed by France and Brazil. England rose by one place to reach the fourth place while Belgium slipped down by one place to reach the fifth spot. The 2023 UEFA Nations League runners-up Croatia rose by one place to reach the sixth spot while the Netherlands slipped to seventh.

  • Italy (eighth spot), Portugal (ninth spot) and 2023 UEFA Nations League winners Spain (10th spot) have retained their respective positions.

National Doctor’s Day 2023: Date, Significance and History

Every year on July 1st, India observes National Doctor’s Day to pay tribute to the esteemed Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy, who was not only a renowned doctor but also a distinguished politician, a freedom fighter, and a champion of education. While soldiers protect borders, doctors are regarded as soldiers who combat diseases and save the lives of countless individuals. They play a vital role in society, and it is crucial to acknowledge their selfless dedication and commemorate this day as a means of honoring their sacrifices.

Significance of National Doctors’ Day

In India, the observance of National Doctors’ Day serves as a platform to recognize and emphasize the invaluable contributions of doctors to society. This event also aids in fostering public awareness regarding the crucial responsibilities and duties entrusted to doctors in the treatment of patients. In times of medical crises, it is essential for us all to express gratitude for the tireless efforts and support provided by our doctors. This includes acknowledging the remarkable contributions of healthcare professionals, including doctors and nurses, during the COVID-19 pandemic, as they continue their relentless battle against the virus.

History of National Doctors’ Day in India

In India, National Doctors’ Day was initially established on July 1, 1991, as a tribute to Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy, who made significant contributions to the medical field. This date holds significance as it coincides with both his birth and death anniversaries.

Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy (July 1, 1882–July 1, 1962) was a renowned physician, educator, freedom fighter, social worker, and politician. He served as the chief minister of West Bengal for an impressive period of 14 years (1948–1962). Recognizing his remarkable achievements, Dr. Roy was honored with the prestigious Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award in India, on February 4, 1961.

Throughout his life, he dedicated himself to the service of the people, treating numerous individuals, and becoming a source of inspiration for millions. Notably, he was also the personal physician of Mahatma Gandhi. In honor of his legacy, the B.C. Roy National Award was established in 1976 to recognize outstanding individuals in various fields such as health, science, public affairs, philosophy, arts, and literature.

Dr. B.C. Roy’s Biography

Born on July 1, 1882, in Patna, Bihar, Dr. B.C. Roy embarked on his medical journey by obtaining his medical degree in Calcutta, followed by MRCP and FRCS degrees in London. In 1911, he commenced his medical career as a practicing physician in India. He went on to hold teaching positions at institutions like Calcutta Medical College, Campbell Medical School, and Carmichael Medical College.

On July 1, 1962, Dr. Roy passed away, and since 1991, this date has been recognized as Doctors’ Day nationwide. Dr. B.C. Roy was a renowned physician, educator, and actively participated in the freedom struggle. He aligned himself with Mahatma Gandhi during the Civil Disobedience Movement and subsequently climbed the ranks within the Indian National Congress, ultimately serving as the Chief Minister of West Bengal.

National Doctors’ Day in India

In India, National Doctors’ Day serves as a dedicated occasion to acknowledge and pay tribute to the crucial roles and responsibilities carried out by doctors. This annual observance also aims to raise public awareness about the significance of doctors and the invaluable care they provide.

Various activities are organized nationwide, including consultation workshops, free medical checkup camps, and general screening test camps. Additionally, initiatives are taken at schools and colleges to inspire young individuals to pursue a career in medicine. Patients express their gratitude to doctors through greeting cards, gifts, bouquets, and other tokens of appreciation.

7 Handicrafts Products of Uttar Pradesh Gets Geographical Indication Tag

Geographical Indication Registry (Chennai, Tamil Nadu-TN) under the Department of Industry Promotion and Internal Trade (DIPIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MoCI), has recognised 7 Handicrafts products from Uttar Pradesh with Geographical Indication (GI) Tag.

  • Amroha Dholak.

  • Kalpi Handmade Paper.

  • Baghpat Home Furnishings.

  • Barabanki Handloom Product.

  • Mahoba Gaura Patthar Hastashlip.

  • Mainpuri Tarkashi.

  • Sambhal Horn Craft.

Which Seven Products from Uttar Pradesh have Received the GI Tag?

Amroha Dholak: A Musical Marvel

  • The Amroha Dholak is a musical instrument crafted from natural wood.

  • Preferred wood choices include mango, jackfruit, and teakwood.

  • Animal skin, usually goatskin, is meticulously fitted to create the drum’s surface.

Baghpat Home Furnishings:

  • Baghpat and Meerut are renowned for their exclusive handloom home furnishing products.

  • The weaving process involves cotton yarn and is predominantly done on frame looms.

Barabanki Handloom Product:

  • Barabanki and its surrounding areas are home to around 50,000 weavers and 20,000 looms.

  • The annual turnover of the Barabanki cluster is estimated to be ₹150 crore.

Kalpi Handmade Paper:

  • Kalpi is recognized for handmade paper manufacturing.

  • Munnalal ‘Khaddari,’ a Gandhian, introduced the craft in the 1940s, although its roots in Kalpi’s history may extend further.

Mahoba Gaura Patthar Hastashlip:

  • Mahoba Gaura Patthar Hastashlip represents the unique stone craft of Mahoba.

  • The stone used, scientifically known as the ‘Pyro Flight Stone,’ is a soft and radiant white-coloured stone predominantly found in the region.

Mainpuri Tarkashi:

Mainpuri Tarkashi is a popular art form characterised by brass wire inlay work on wood. Traditionally used for khadaous (wooden sandals), Mainpuri Tarkashi has been a household necessity. Leather alternatives were sought due to cultural considerations regarding cleanliness.

Sambhal Horn Craft:

Sambhal Horn Craft utilises raw materials procured from deceased animals and this craft form is entirely handmade.

What is a GI Tag?

  • A geographical indication (GI) tag is a name or sign used on certain products that correspond to a specific geographical location or origin. For example, Darjeeling Tea, Kanchipuram Silk, etc.

  • The GI tag ensures that only the authorised users or those residing in the geographical territory are allowed to use the popular product name. It also protects the product from being copied or imitated by others.

  • A registered GI is valid for 10 years.

Legal Framework and Obligations:

  • The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 seeks to provide for the registration and better protection of geographical indications relating to goods in India.

  • It is governed and directed by the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).

  • Furthermore, the significance of protecting industrial property and geographical indications as integral components of intellectual property is acknowledged and emphasised in Articles 1(2) and 10 of the Paris Convention.

DoT announces ‘5G & Beyond Hackathon 2023’

The Department of Telecommunications (DoT) in India has been actively organizing hackathons to encourage the development of 5G products and solutions. These initiatives have resulted in the creation of innovative solutions across various technological verticals. In line with its commitment to promoting technological advancements, the DoT has announced the commencement of applications for the ‘5G & Beyond Hackathon 2023’ from June 28, 2023. This hackathon aims to identify cutting-edge ideas with a focus on India and transform them into practical and effective 5G and beyond products and solutions.

Objective

The primary objective of the ‘5G & Beyond Hackathon 2023’ is to identify innovative ideas with a specific focus on India’s requirements and transform them into practical 5G and future-generation products and solutions. By encouraging participation from diverse stakeholders, the DoT aims to leverage collaboration and collective expertise to shape the future of telecommunications in India.

Categories of Focus

Participants in the hackathon have the freedom to develop 5G and beyond solutions across multiple categories. These categories includes:

  • Healthcare: Innovations in healthcare delivery, telemedicine, remote patient monitoring, and health data analytics using 5G technology.

  • Education & Governance: Solutions that leverage 5G to enhance remote learning, e-governance, and citizen services.

  • AgriTech & Livestock: Applications of 5G in precision agriculture, livestock management, farm automation, and supply chain optimization.

  • Environment: Solutions addressing environmental challenges through the use of 5G technology, such as pollution monitoring, smart energy management, and waste management.

  • Public Safety & Disaster Management: Innovations focusing on public safety, emergency response, disaster management, and early warning systems using 5G networks.

  • Smart Cities & Infrastructure: Applications of 5G in transforming urban infrastructure, transportation, energy management, and public services.

  • Cyber Security: Solutions incorporating 5G technology to enhance cybersecurity measures, threat detection, and data protection.

  • Banking, Finance & Insurance: Innovations in financial services, banking, insurance, and payment systems using the capabilities of 5G networks.

  • Logistics & Transportation: Applications of 5G in optimizing logistics, supply chain management, fleet management, and smart transportation systems.

  • Multimedia & Broadcast Satellite: Leveraging 5G for multimedia content delivery, broadcasting, satellite communications, and immersive experiences.

Prize Pool and Opportunity

The hackathon offers a total prize pool of Rs one crore, which will be shared among the top hundred winners. In addition to the financial reward, the winners will have a unique opportunity to scale and implement their 5G products and solutions, making them market-ready. To facilitate this process, the winners will receive valuable support from mentors representing the government, industry, academia, Telcos/OEMs, and other relevant sectors. This mentorship will play a crucial role in refining their ideas and ensuring their successful implementation.

Inclusivity and Collaboration

The ‘5G & Beyond Hackathon 2023’ is open to individuals, students, start-ups, and academic institutions across India. This inclusive approach encourages participation from diverse backgrounds, fostering collaboration between different sectors of society. By bringing together participants from various disciplines and expertise, the hackathon cultivates an environment where ideas can flourish, and interdisciplinary solutions can be developed.

Important takeaways for competitive examinations

  • Shri Ashwini Vaishnaw is the Union Minister for Department of Telecommunications.

  • At present, only Bharti Airtel and Reliance Jio are the two telecom operators that offer 5G network in the country.

Union Minister Parshottam Rupala Launches “Report Fish Disease” App

The Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry, and Dairying in the Government of India have taken a significant step towards digitizing the fish farming sector with the launch of the android-based mobile app, “Report Fish Disease” The app, unveiled by Shri Parshottam Rupala, Minister of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry, and Dairying, aims to enhance disease reporting and surveillance in the aquaculture industry.

The Launch of “Report Fish Disease” App

  • As a part of the government’s vision of “Digital India,” the app serves as a central platform connecting fish farmers, field-level officers, and fish health experts.

  • The app enables seamless integration and transparent communication among stakeholders.

Benefits of the “Report Fish Disease” App

1.Data Collection and Mapping

  • The app collects and stores data on temporal and spatial scales, providing a valuable resource for disease mapping and analysis.

  • By analyzing disease cases, researchers and policymakers can gain insights into disease trends and develop targeted interventions.

2.Early Warning System

  • The app establishes an early warning system to help farmers mitigate losses caused by diseases.

  • Farmers receive scientific advice from experts, enabling them to take preventive measures promptly.

  • Timely interventions can help minimize the impact of diseases on fish farms, ensuring sustainable production.

3.Improved Disease Reporting

  • The app facilitates direct communication between fish farmers and district fisheries officers and scientists.

  • Farmers can self-report diseases affecting their finfish, shrimps, and molluscs through the app.

  • By providing scientific technical assistance, experts can promptly address reported issues.

4.Strengthening Disease Reporting

  • The app empowers fish farmers to report disease outbreaks efficiently, reducing the chances of unnoticed or unreported incidents.

  • By capturing real-time data, the app supports accurate disease surveillance at both the local and national levels.

  • Strengthening disease reporting will aid in implementing effective control measures and preventing the spread of diseases.

Background

1.National Surveillance Programme for Aquatic Animal Diseases (NSPAAD)

  • For early detection of diseases, Government of India under PMMSY has implemented National Surveillance Programme on Aquatic Animal Diseases (NSPAAD) Phase-II throughout the country.

  • The program aims to meet national and international obligations through transparent reporting.

  • The Department of Fisheries has allocated ₹33.78 crore for the second phase of NSPAAD for a period of three years.

  • The app, developed by ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBFGR), Lucknow, supports the NSPAAD initiative.

2.Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana(PMMSY)

  • The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana is a flagship scheme dedicated to the holistic development of the fisheries sector.

  • With an estimated investment of Rs. 20,050 crores, the scheme aims to achieve significant milestones by 2024-25, including increasing fish production and export earnings and doubling the incomes of fishers and fish farmers.

Important takeaways for competitive examinations

  • Digital India is a campaign launched by the Government of India in 2015 to ensure that the Government’s services are made available to citizens electronically through improved online infrastructure.

  • Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana was launched by Prime minister Shri Narendra Modi on 10th September 2020.

  • “Report Fish Disease” app is developed by ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBFGR), Lucknow

India’s Progress Recognized: Removed from UN Secretary-General’s Report on Impact of Armed Conflict on Children

India has been removed from the UN Secretary-General’s annual report on the impact of armed conflict on children, signaling the country’s improved measures to protect children. The decision by Secretary-General Antonio Guterres acknowledges India’s commitment to child protection and highlights the positive outcomes of its technical mission and a workshop on strengthening child protection. This development marks a significant milestone for India, which had been included in the report since 2010.

India’s Inclusion and Previous Concerns:

Initially, India was listed in the report alongside other countries such as Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Lake Chad Basin, Nigeria, Pakistan, and the Philippines. The inclusion of India was based on allegations of armed groups recruiting young boys in Jammu and Kashmir and the detainment of boys by security forces due to their association with such groups.

Engagement and Collaborative Efforts:

In the previous report, Secretary-General Guterres commended the Indian government’s engagement with his special representative, expressing optimism about India’s removal from the list of concerns. The latest report on Children and Armed Conflict in 2023 confirms India’s removal, attributing it to the government’s proactive measures to protect children. Guterres also recognizes a workshop organized by India in Jammu and Kashmir in November 2022, which saw the participation of the United Nations.

India’s Commitment and Collaboration:

Virginia Gamba, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, acknowledged India’s close collaboration with the United Nations over the past two years. This collaboration demonstrates India’s dedication to prevention and the establishment of sustainable measures to safeguard children.

Global Scenario:

Disproportionate Impact on Children: Globally, children continue to bear a disproportionate brunt of armed conflict, as highlighted in Guterres’ annual report. In 2022, the United Nations verified a staggering 27,180 grave violations, encompassing 24,300 violations committed during that year and an additional 2,880 violations committed earlier but verified in 2022. These violations affected 18,890 children across 24 situations and one regional monitoring arrangement. The report underscores the prevalence of grave violations such as killing, maiming, recruitment and use, abduction, and detention of children

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