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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-21st September 2023

International Day of Peace 2023: Date, Theme, Celebration, History and Significance

Each year on 21 September, the world comes together to observe the International Day of Peace (IDP). This day, established by the United Nations (UN), serves as a reminder of our commitment to peace, non-violence, and conflict resolution. In 2023, the significance of this day is heightened as it coincides with the mid-point milestone of implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), emphasizing the interconnectedness of peace and sustainable development.

International Day of Peace 2023 Theme

The theme for the 2023 International Day of Peace is “Actions for Peace: Our Ambition for the #GlobalGoals.” This theme underscores our individual and collective responsibility in fostering peace. It highlights the critical role peace plays in achieving the SDGs, as well as the imperative to engage diverse actors, including the 1.2 billion young people worldwide, to ensure the goals’ success. The three key areas of focus are fighting inequality, driving action on climate change, and promoting and protecting human rights.

Significance of International Day of Peace

Commitment to Peace and Conflict Resolution

The International Day of Peace reaffirms the UN’s commitment to peace and conflict resolution. It serves as a call for individuals, communities, and nations to work collaboratively towards a more peaceful and just world. True peace, as recognized by the UN, extends beyond the absence of violence and encompasses the creation of societies where all members can flourish.

Promoting Dialogue and Cooperation

This day remains vital for promoting dialogue, understanding, and cooperation among people and nations. It provides a platform for bridging differences and fostering a shared commitment to peace, irrespective of race or nationality. The ultimate goal is to build a global culture of peace where everyone is treated equally.

Celebration of International Day of Peace

United Nations Peace Bell

In 1986, the United Nations Peace Bell was inaugurated at the UN Headquarters in New York City. An annual ceremony is held on the International Day of Peace, during which the Peace Bell is rung to symbolize the call for global peace. The Peace Bell was crafted from coins and medals donated by representatives of Member States, religious leaders, and children from over 60 nations who supported the initiative.

Symbolic Bell Tower

The design of the bell tower is inspired by the Hanamido, a small temple adorned with flowers symbolizing the birthplace of Buddha. The Peace Bell is rung twice a year: on the first day of spring, during the Vernal Equinox, and on September 21 to commemorate the International Day for Peace.

History of International Day of Peace

The history of the International Day of Peace dates back to the United Nations General Assembly passing Resolution 36/67 on September 30, 1981. This resolution called for a global ceasefire and the cessation of all hostilities on that day. Subsequently, the third Tuesday of September each year was declared as the International Day of Peace. The first official observance took place on September 21, 1982, and later in 2001, this date was officially established as September 21, marking a significant step toward promoting peace and raising awareness about the importance of peacekeeping efforts worldwide.

In conclusion, the International Day of Peace serves as a powerful reminder of our collective responsibility to foster peace, promote sustainable development, and build a world where all individuals can thrive. It is a day of reflection, action, and unity in pursuit of a more peaceful and just global society.

Adidas revealed Team India Jersey For ICC World Cup 2023

Adidas has revealed Team India’s jersey for the upcoming ICC World Cup 2023. The upcoming tournament is a historic one for India as they will be hosting the ODI World Cup alone for the very first time. In the past, India had co-hosted the World Cup on three occasions – 1987, 1996 and 2011. The tournament will be played across ten venues – Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Bengaluru, Pune, Hyderabad, Delhi, Dharamsala and Lucknow. A total of ten teams will be fighting it out in the thirteenth edition of the ICC ODI World Cup. The competition is scheduled to be played from October 5 to November 19.

With just over two weeks remaining before the ICC World Cup 2023 gets underway, Adidas, Team India’s official kit sponsor, has unveiled the jersey for the Men in Blue. On Wednesday (September 20), Adidas posted a video on their social media platforms to release the jersey.

Vibrant Tricolor Stripes

In a notable departure from previous designs, the iconic three white stripes on the shoulders of the jersey have been replaced with vibrant tricolor stripes. This bold move serves as a testament to India’s rich cultural heritage and national pride.

Commemorating Past Glories

The jersey also features two stars above the BCCI logo, symbolizing India’s two triumphs in the ODI World Cup – in 1983 and 2011. These stars are a proud reminder of India’s cricketing achievements on the world stage.

‘3 Ka Dream’ Campaign

In an inspiring move, Team India has named their World Cup campaign as ‘3 Ka Dream,’ which roughly translates to “the dream of 3.” Here, the number 3 symbolizes India’s dream of securing their third ODI World Cup victory. This campaign reflects the team’s determination and aspiration to etch their name in cricketing history once again.

As cricket enthusiasts eagerly await the commencement of the ICC World Cup 2023, the unveiling of Team India’s jersey adds an extra layer of excitement and anticipation to this grand sporting spectacle. With the nation’s hopes pinned on their cricketing heroes, the Men in Blue are all set to embark on a journey to realize the dream of ‘3 Ka Dream.’

India-Canada Relations Strained Over Allegations of Sikh Separatist Involvement

Canada’s prime minister, Justin Trudeau, announced that there was “credible” information linking Indian government agents to the murder of a Sikh separatist leader in British Columbia. The announcement marks a significant worsening of bilateral ties.

Background

In the 1980s and early 1990s, Punjab, India, experienced a violent Khalistan separatist movement, resulting in the loss of thousands of lives. Today, the most outspoken supporters of this movement are mainly found among Punjabi expatriates living abroad.

Recently, there was a tragic incident where Hardeep Singh Nijjar was fatally shot outside a Sikh temple in Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. Nijjar had been advocating for the creation of an independent Sikh nation called Khalistan within India’s Punjab state. He was wanted by Indian authorities and was officially labeled as a “terrorist” in July 2020. Nijjar held a prominent position as the leader of the Khalistan Tiger Force, an organization that India has designated as a terrorist group.

This incident has given rise to discussions on social media regarding potential connections between Indian intelligence agencies and these overseas deaths, including those that occurred on Canadian soil.

India pays special attention to Canada’s Sikh community for a few key reasons:

Large Indian-Origin Population in Canada: Canada is home to a significant number of people of Indian origin, totaling around 1.4 million in a country with a total population of 40 million. Among them, about 770,000 identify as Sikhs based on the 2021 census.

  • Highest Sikh Population Outside Punjab: Canada hosts the largest Sikh population outside of India’s Punjab state.

  • Concerns About Sikh Extremism: India has expressed concerns to the Canadian government regarding the activities of Sikh hardliners within the Indian diaspora in Canada. India believes that some of these individuals are involved in efforts to rekindle insurgent movements.

  • Historical Events Impacting Relations: Past events, such as the 1985 bombing of an Air India aircraft by a Canada-based Khalistani separatist group, have strained relations between India and Canada. These incidents have contributed to India’s vigilance regarding Sikh-related activities in Canada.

The relationship between India and Canada has significantly worsened in recent times due to various factors

Soft Approach Towards Khalistani Supporters: The Canadian government is perceived as being lenient towards individuals who support the Khalistani movement, which advocates for Sikh separatism in India. This approach is seen as detrimental to Indian interests.

Concerns About Vandalism of Hindu Temples: Indian diplomacy has consistently raised concerns about the alleged vandalization and defacement of Hindu temples in Canada by groups associated with Khalistani ideologies. These incidents have strained relations between the two nations.

Freedom Given to Khalistani Leaders: Canadian authorities have been criticized for allowing Khalistani leaders and organizations to operate with relative freedom. This includes permitting them to organize referendums advocating for the creation of an independent Sikh state within India.

Incitement of Violence Against Indian Diplomats: Khalistan elements have been involved in inciting violence against Indian diplomats. This includes displaying the photographs and personal information of Indian officials on posters, as well as targeting Indian diplomatic facilities on multiple occasions in recent years. These actions have further exacerbated diplomatic tensions between India and Canada.

Khalistan factor in Canadian politics

Canada is home to the world’s second-largest Sikh population, trailing only behind India. Sikhs make up more than 2 percent of Canada’s total population, totaling nearly 800,000 people. They are also the fourth-largest religious community in Canada and are known for their rapid growth and economic prosperity within the country.

  • Canada has witnessed various waves of Sikh migration over the years, leading to the development of a thriving and economically successful Sikh community. However, it’s essential to note that in the 1980s, Canada provided refuge to several individuals who were considered terrorists, including figures like Jagjit Singh Chauhan and Talwinder Singh Parmar.

  • At present, there are individuals labeled as “designated terrorists,” such as Arshdeep Singh Gill, also known as Arsh Dalla, associated with the Khalistan Tiger Force (KTF), who are residing in Canada.

  • The dynamics surrounding Canada’s actions have evolved. While during the 1980s, their decisions may have been influenced by the Cold War context, today, these actions appear to be shaped primarily by domestic political considerations, specifically vote bank politics.

  • In the 2019 Canadian federal election, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s Liberal Party fell short of a majority with 157 votes. Consequently, they formed a coalition government with the ‘New Democratic Party,’ led by Jagmeet Singh Dhaliwal, who is known to have pro-Khalistan leanings. This political alliance places pressure on the Trudeau-led government not to antagonize their coalition partners, which impacts Canada’s stance on Khalistani issues.

What does this mean for Canada-India relations?

India and Canada, which were on track to potentially reach an agreement on the framework of a trade deal by the end of 2023, have now suspended their discussions on the agreement. While Canada has provided limited details regarding this development, India has attributed it to “certain political developments.”

India stands as Canada’s tenth-largest trading partner, and the prospects for a trade deal have been in the works for more than a decade. However, in 2022, the total bilateral trade between the two nations amounted to just C$13.7 billion out of Canada’s overall trade worth C$1.52 trillion, as reported by Statistics Canada.

Following the rejection of the allegations made against them, the Indian government has called upon Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to take action against what they term as “anti-India elements” operating within Canada. India has taken further steps by expelling a senior Canadian diplomat from the country. This decision underscores the growing concern within the Indian government about Canadian diplomats interfering in India’s internal affairs and their alleged involvement in activities against India’s interests.

Efforts to mend and reset India-Canada relations in recent years have faced challenges due to Canada’s persistent stance that the actions of pro-Khalistan elements fall under the umbrella of freedom of expression guaranteed to Canadian citizens, which has been a source of friction between the two countries.

Concluding Remarks

The Indian government has strongly expressed its concerns about Khalistani activities to the highest authorities in the countries where these activities are taking place. India has engaged in constructive dialogues with Western governments, and while some progress has been made, more efforts are needed.

As Khalistani elements intensify their activities abroad, often with host countries turning a blind eye, India must redouble its efforts to prevent the recurrence of such incidents. It is crucial for India to effectively convey to these host countries that maintaining positive relations with India should not coincide with allowing anti-India separatist movements to operate within their borders.

Simultaneously, India needs to establish a constructive and sustained relationship with the Sikh diaspora. This engagement should focus on dispelling the misinformation spread by Khalistani separatists and highlighting the prevailing sense of contentment in Punjab, India’s Sikh-majority state. Building trust and understanding within the Sikh community is essential for fostering unity and countering separatist narratives.

Hoysala Temples now India’s 42nd UNESCO’s World Heritage site

The Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala, the famed Hoysala temples of Belur, Halebid and Somananthpura in Karnataka have been added to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage list. This inclusion marks the 42nd UNESCO World Heritage Site in India and comes just a day after Rabindranath Tagore’s Santiniketan also received this distinguished recognition.

The temples were finalised as India’s nomination for consideration as World Heritage for the year 2022-2023. The ‘Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala’ have been on UNESCO’s Tentative list since April 15, 2014. All these three Hoysala temples are already protected monuments of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

The Hoysala temples are known for their intricate carvings and exquisite architecture. They were built by the Hoysala Empire, which ruled over a large part of southern India between the 10th and 14th centuries. The three temples that have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List are:

  • Chennakeshava Temple at Belur

  • Hoysaleshwara Temple at Halebidu

  • Keshava Temple at Somanathapura

What is the history and significance of Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala?

The sacred ensembles of the Hoysalas, constructed during the 12th and 13th centuries are represented here by the three components of Belur, Halebid, and Somnathapura. While the Hoysala temples maintain a fundamental Dravidian morphology, they exhibit substantial influences from the Bhumija style prevalent in Central India, the Nagara traditions of northern and western India, and the Karnataka Dravida modes favoured by the Kalyani Chalukyas.

The Hoysalas were a powerful dynasty that ruled over much of southern India from the 11th to the 14th centuries. The Hoysala kings were known for their patronage of the arts, and they built many temples and other religious structures during their reign. The Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala are the most impressive examples of Hoysala architecture, and they are a testament to the dynasty’s wealth and power.

The three most important Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala are

  • Belur: The Chennakeshava Temple at Belur is the largest and most elaborate of the Hoysala temples. It is dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, and it is covered in intricate carvings depicting gods, goddesses, and scenes from Hindu mythology.

  • Halebidu: The Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu is another impressive Hoysala temple. It is dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva, and it is known for its exquisite soapstone carvings.

  • Somnathapura: The Keshava Temple at Somnathapura is a smaller Hoysala temple, but it is no less impressive than the temples at Belur and Halebidu. It is known for its harmonious proportions and its beautiful carvings.

The Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala are significant for a number of reasons. First, they are some of the most beautiful and intricate examples of Hindu temple architecture in the world. Second, they are a testament to the wealth and power of the Hoysala dynasty. Third, they provide a unique glimpse into the religious and cultural life of the Hoysala people.

What does it signify when a site is listed on the World Heritage List?

According to UNESCO, when a country becomes a signatory to the World Heritage Convention and has its sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, it often brings about increased recognition and appreciation for heritage preservation among both its citizens and government. Furthermore, the country may avail itself of financial assistance and expert guidance from the World Heritage Committee to bolster efforts aimed at safeguarding these precious sites.

When a site is listed on the World Heritage List, it signifies that it is of outstanding universal value to humanity. This means that it is a place of exceptional cultural or natural significance, and that its preservation is important for the benefit of all people.

World Heritage sites can be cultural, natural, or mixed. Cultural sites include things like ancient ruins, historical monuments, and religious buildings. Natural sites include things like national parks, wildlife refuges, and geological formations. Mixed sites include places that have both cultural and natural significance, such as a cultural landscape or a national park with important cultural sites.

There are currently 1,172 World Heritage Sites in 166 countries around the world. Some of the most famous World Heritage Sites include the Great Wall of China, the Taj Mahal, the Grand Canyon, and the Great Barrier Reef.

Being listed on the World Heritage List brings a number of benefits, including

  • International recognition and prestige

  • Legal protection under the World Heritage Convention

  • Access to funding from the World Heritage Fund

  • Increased tourism revenue

However, listing on the World Heritage List also comes with certain responsibilities. Countries with World Heritage Sites must take steps to protect and conserve these sites, and to ensure that they are accessible to the public.

Overall, being listed on the World Heritage List is a great honor and a sign that a site is truly special and worth preserving for future generations.

Here are some of the specific things that World Heritage sites can signify

Cultural sites:

  • The achievements of human creativity and ingenuity

  • The diversity of human cultures and traditions

  • The importance of cultural identity and heritage

Natural sites:

  • The beauty and wonder of the natural world

  • The importance of biodiversity and conservation

  • The interconnectedness of nature and culture

World Heritage sites also play an important role in education and tourism. They provide opportunities for people to learn about different cultures and natural environments, and to experience the beauty and wonder of the world.

CM Pramod Sawant Launches Griha Adhar Scheme To Empower Goan Homemakers

In a significant move aimed at bolstering the financial independence and well-being of homemakers in Goa, Chief Minister Pramod Sawant distributed Griha Adhar sanction orders to a multitude of beneficiaries across the state. This proactive step not only acknowledges the invaluable contributions of homemakers but also seeks to uplift their socio-economic status.

A Boost for Women: The Griha Adhar Initiative

The Griha Adhar initiative, orchestrated by the Directorate of Women and Child Development, represents a significant stride towards women’s empowerment. By providing financial support to homemakers, this initiative aspires to make them self-reliant and enhance their overall quality of life. The sanction orders distributed during this event are a testament to the government’s commitment to the welfare of women in Goa.

Chavath-e-Bazaar: A Digital Leap for Goan Entrepreneurs

In addition to the Griha Adhar initiative, Chief Minister Sawant unveiled another transformative program – the Chavath-e-Bazaar. This digital endeavor, launched under the Swayampura Goa Programme, is designed to empower Goan entrepreneurs and self-help groups. By harnessing the potential of e-commerce, Chavath-e-Bazaar aims to provide a platform for local artisans and entrepreneurs to showcase their products to a wider audience.

A Commitment to ‘Vocal for Local’

Chief Minister Sawant reiterated his government’s commitment to uplift both the common people and local entrepreneurs, aligning with Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of ‘Vocal for Local.’ This commitment reflects a steadfast dedication to promoting indigenous industries and empowering grassroots-level businesses.

Support for Women Beneficiaries

A noteworthy outcome of this initiative is the distribution of 11,500 newly sanctioned orders across the state, with a substantial allocation of 6,000 orders to the North Goa district alone. This distribution has significantly increased the number of women beneficiaries, with the count now reaching an impressive 1.5 lakh.

Empowering through Training

Furthermore, Chief Minister Sawant highlighted the government’s proactive approach in providing free-of-cost training to women at their respective panchayats. This training encompasses essential skills related to packaging food items, selling, and other relevant aspects, fostering self-reliance among women beneficiaries.

Annual Increments for Griha Adhar Beneficiaries

Vishwajeet Rane, Minister for Women and Child Development, shared that Griha Adhar beneficiaries have already received their financial support directly into their accounts on the same day. Furthermore, the scheme is structured to provide annual increments, ensuring continued financial assistance for homemakers.

Chavath-e-Bazaar: Boosting Entrepreneurial Dreams

Minister Rane emphasized that the Chavath-e-Bazaar, an online portal integrated with the Swiggy app for seamless ordering, holds great promise for women entrepreneurs. This digital platform will not only facilitate their businesses but also propel them towards realizing their dreams of becoming successful entrepreneurs.

ACKO Launches “Health Insurance ki Subah ho Gayi Mamu” Campaign for Platinum Health Plan

ACKO, a leading insurance company, has unveiled its latest health insurance offering called the “ACKO Platinum Health Plan.” This comprehensive plan boasts several notable features, including 100% bill payment, no room rent capping, and zero waiting periods. To promote this new product, ACKO has reintroduced the beloved characters of Munna Bhai and Circuit from the iconic Bollywood movie series. The campaign is aptly titled “Health Insurance ki Subah ho Gayi Mamu” and has been directed by renowned filmmaker Rajkumar Hirani. Sanjay Dutt and Arshad Warsi reprise their original roles in the campaign.

Revolutionizing Health Insurance:

Ashish Mishra, EVP-Marketing at ACKO, explained that Munna and Circuit’s character traits align with the company’s goal of challenging the conventional norms of health insurance. The Platinum Health Plan has been designed to simplify health insurance and eliminate common customer pain points. The campaign leverages Rajkumar Hirani’s storytelling prowess to convey complex issues in a comprehensible manner.

Key Campaign Highlights:

The series of advertisements within the campaign focus on educating the audience about several critical aspects of the ACKO Platinum Health Plan:

  1. Zero Waiting Period: The campaign highlights the plan’s unique feature of zero waiting periods, ensuring immediate coverage for policyholders.

  2. 100% Bill Payment: ACKO emphasizes its commitment to covering 100% of the medical bills, alleviating financial burdens during health crises.

  3. Full Disclosures for Stress-Free Claims: The campaign encourages policyholders to provide full disclosures of their ailments. This transparency simplifies the claims process, leading to a stress-free experience.

  4. Ease of Filing Claims: ACKO emphasizes the ease of filing claims, making it a hassle-free process for customers.

Unprecedented Collaboration:

Vikram Pandey, National Creative Director at Leo Burnett India, expressed that the idea of Munna and Circuit challenging traditional health insurance norms was met with enthusiasm but seemed unachievable. However, securing the participation of Sanjay Dutt, Arshad Warsi, and Rajkumar Hirani to create the next episode of the Munna Bhai series for an advertising campaign was a remarkable achievement.

G77+China summit concludes with emphasis on empowering Global South

The two-day Summit of the G77+China recently concluded, marking a significant moment for the Global South’s aspirations in the international governance system. This summit brought together delegations from over 100 nations, including more than 30 heads of state and government.

The G77+China Alliance:

The Group of 77 (G77), established in 1964, consists of over 130 member nations, with its leadership rotating among member nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Notably, G77 member countries collectively represent over 80 percent of the world’s population and comprise more than two-thirds of UN member nations. China, while not a member of the G77, has been actively cooperating and supporting the group’s objectives within the framework of “G77+China.”

UN Secretary-General’s Support:

At the summit’s opening, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres affirmed the enduring importance of the Group of 77+China within the United Nations system. This acknowledgment underscores the group’s influential role in global affairs.

Promoting Science, Technology, and Innovation:

One significant development at the summit was the declaration by developing countries of September 16 as the annual “Day of Science, Technology, and Innovation in the South.” This initiative aims to rally support from the world, the UN system, and global financial institutions to bolster the efforts of Southern nations in advancing their national science and innovation systems.

Addressing Global Challenges:

The summit’s statement also drew attention to pressing global challenges, including the ongoing pandemic and disparities in vaccine distribution. Cuban President Miguel Diaz-Canel highlighted United Nations data revealing that 10 nations are responsible for 90 percent of copyrights and 70 percent of exports in digital production technologies. This underscores the need for a more equitable global distribution of technological and scientific resources.

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