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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-21th August 2023

Russia’s Ambitions Luna-25 Mission Ends in Failure

Russia’s eagerly anticipated lunar mission, the Luna-25, has suffered a significant setback as the spacecraft veered out of control and crashed onto the Moon surface. The failure is a poignant reminder of the unpredictable challenges inherent in space exploration, emphasizing that even the most advanced technology is susceptible to failure. This article delves into the details of the mission, the implications of its failure, and Russia’s unwavering commitment to lunar exploration.

The Luna-25 Mission: A Vision of Lunar Exploration

The Luna-25 mission was an ambitious undertaking by Russia, aimed at landing a spacecraft on the Moon’s south pole. This region garnered intense scientific interest due to its potential to contain water ice, a precious resource for future lunar endeavors. Beyond its scientific objectives, the Luna-25 also served as a preliminary step towards more advanced lunar missions, setting the stage for future missions that would gather and return lunar soil samples to Earth.

Luna-25 Mission Crash and Investigation: Unraveling the Failure

Regrettably, the Luna-25 mission took an unexpected turn as the spacecraft lost control and crashed onto the lunar surface shortly after a critical maneuver. The precise reasons behind this failure remain shrouded in uncertainty, prompting Russia’s space agency, Roscosmos, to launch a comprehensive investigation. The incident underscores the intricate complexities of space exploration and highlights the need for meticulous planning and thorough risk assessment.

A Look Back: Russia’s Lunar Exploration History

The last successful landing of a Russian spacecraft on the Moon occurred in 1976, marking a substantial gap in the country’s lunar exploration endeavors. The Luna-25’s failure brings this historical context into sharper focus, underscoring the formidable challenges that lunar missions entail. Despite this extended hiatus, Russia has exhibited resilience and determination in its pursuit of lunar exploration.

The Road Ahead: Continued Commitment to Lunar Exploration

Despite the disappointing outcome of the Luna-25 mission, Russia remains undeterred in its commitment to lunar exploration. The country’s space agency is poised to launch the Luna-26 and Luna-27 missions in the coming years. These missions are poised to leverage the lessons gleaned from the Luna-25’s failure and propel Russia’s lunar exploration program forward. This steadfast approach indicates Russia’s determination to learn from its mistakes and to ultimately achieve success in its lunar aspirations.

Conclusion: A Lesson in Perseverance

The Luna-25 mission’s failure serves as a poignant reminder of the inherent unpredictability of space exploration. As Russia grapples with the disappointment of this setback, it is also a testament to the spirit of resilience and determination that defines the field of space exploration. With a renewed commitment and a steadfast resolve, Russia is poised to rebound from this setback, draw valuable insights, and continue its journey towards unlocking the mysteries of the Moon.

FIFA Women’s World Cup 2023: Spain wins the title with 1-0 victory over England

Spain secured their first ever Women’s World Cup title with a 1-0 win over England at the 2023 FIFA Women’s World Cup final in Sydney. The win marks a historic FIFA Women’s World Cup campaign for Spain who previously failed to make it past the Round of 16. Making it to the final after knockout wins over Switzerland, the Netherlands and Sweden, was already a first for Spain with the victory in the final cause for an even bigger celebration. Captain Olga Carmona smashed the decisive goal as Spain defeated England 1-0 to lift the FIFA Women’s World Cup title.

Spain’s first major international trophy made it the first European team to win the Women’s World Cup since Germany in 2007.In addition, Spain’s victory makes them only the second nation to have won both the men’s and the women’s World Cups. The other nation is Germany, who won the men’s World Cup in 1974 and 1990, and the women’s World Cup in 2003 and 2007. Spain’s victory is a historic moment for the team, for the country, and for the women’s game. It is a moment that will be remembered for many years to come.

FIFA Women’s World Cup 2023: Here is a full list of the winners

  • Young Player of the Tournament: Salma Paralluelo, Spain ( Spain’s 19-year-old star Salma Paralluelo was awarded Young Player of the Tournament after scoring as a substitute in both the semifinal and quarterfinal.)

  • Golden Glove: Mary Earps, England

  • Golden Boot: Hinata Miyazawa, Japan (Golden Boot for scoring a tournament-high five goals)

  • Silver Boot: Kadidiatou Diani, France

  • Bronze Boot: Alexandra Popp, Germany

  • Golden Ball: Aitana Bonmati, Spain

  • Silver Ball: Jennifer Hermoso, Spain

  • Bronze Ball: Amanda Ilestedt, Sweden

Sadbhavana Diwas 2023: Date, History and Significance

Sadbhavana Diwas, also known as Harmony Day, is an annual celebration observed on 20th August in India. 20th August 2023 marks the 79th birth anniversary of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. This day commemorates the birthday of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, a visionary leader who championed the cause of national integration, peace and public harmony among the diverse population of India.

The Meaning of Sadbhavana

The term “Sadbhavana” in English refers to “goodwill and bonafide”. Being the youngest Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi’s thought process was modern and different from others. He had the vision of a developed nation via many national as well as international projects that he pioneered. The main theme of Sadbhavana Diwas is to promote national integration and communal harmony among people of all religions and languages.

About Rajiv Gandhi: A Visionary Leader

Rajiv Gandhi, born on 20th August 1944, is the former Prime Minister of India. He held office from 1984-1989 and made significant contributions to the development of the country. He introduced several progressive policies aimed at modernizing India’s education system and economy. Some of his notable achievements include:

  • National Policy on Education: Rajiv Gandhi introduced a National Policy on Education in 1986 to modernize higher education plans and promote intellectual growth.

  • Jawahar Navodaya Vidhyalaya System: Rajiv Gandhi founded a central-government-based institution namely Jawahar Navodaya Vidhyalaya System in 1986 for the upliftment of the rural section of the society providing them free residential education from 6th to 12th class.

  • Telecommunications Development: Due to his efforts, MTNL (Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited) was established in 1986 and also created public call offices (PCOs) for spreading telephones in rural areas.

  • Economic Reforms: In post-1990, he introduced measures for reducing License Raj allowing businesses and individuals to purchase capital, consumer goods and import bureaucratic restrictions.

  • Youth Empowerment: Rajiv Gandhi introduced the voting age as 18 to encourage the youth involvement in the voting process. He emphasized the potential of the country’s youth and introduced schemes like the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana to provide employment opportunities.

Significance of Sadbhavana Diwas

Sadbhavana Diwas serves as a reminder of Rajiv Gandhi’s aspirations for India’s development and progress. The celebration emphasizes the promotion of national unity, peace, empathy and communal harmony among people of different faiths and cultures. The central theme of the day is to foster goodwill and understanding among diverse communities, creating an atmosphere of mutual respect and coordination.

Sadbhavana Diwas’ Pledge

Sadbhavana Diwas is observed throughout the country and citizens take the following pledge on this day:

“I take this solemn pledge that I will work for the emotional oneness and harmony of all the people of India regardless of caste, religion, region or language. I further pledge that I shall resolve all differences among us through dialogue and constitutional means without resorting or violence.”

Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana Award

The Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana Award was established in 1992 by the All-Indian Parliamentary Commission of the Indian National Congress to commemorate the former PM Rajiv Gandhi. This award is given annually to those who have devoted their lives to understanding and promoting the spirit of harmony. The awardees are provided with a prize of Rs.10 lakh and a prize. Some of the awardees are: Lata Mangeshkar, Shubha Mudgal, Sunil Dutt, Amjad Ali Khan, Mohammad Azharuddin, Gopalakrishna Gandhi and more.

PR Seshadri appointed new MD & CEO of South Indian Bank

The Reserve Bank of India has approved the appointment of PR Seshadri as Managing Director & CEO of the South Indian Bank for a period of three years with effect from October 1, 2023.

Professional Background

  • PR Seshadri is an accomplished banker with experiences spanning multiple businesses, functional lines and geographies. He has significant experiences in enterprise level management and in the management of all key commercial banking business lines and he has substantial experience in successfully managing investors, boards and regulatory relationships in multiple geographies.

  • PR Seshadri is a respected business leader with a proven track record of building and leading large teams to execute and deliver complex business objectives. He demonstrated his ability in creating new businesses as well as in problem solving. He is successful in scaling businesses – both existing and new – taking advantage of new technologies and new market opportunities.

Eductional Background

He holds Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from the Delhi College of Engineering and a Post Graduate Diploma in Management from Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore. PR Seshadri has served as, amongst other positions as, Managing Director & CEO of The Karur Vysya Bank Limited (KVB), Managing Director & Regional Sales and Distribution Head, Citibank N.A., Asia Pacific, Singapore, Managing Director & Regional Head of Lending, Businesses, Citibank N.A., Asia Pacific, Singapore, Managing Director CitiFinancial Consumer Finance India Limited (CCFIL), India, Marketing Director, Citibank N.A, India Branches, Head of Structured Finance & Managing Director, CFRSIL & Integration Manager – Associates India Limited, Head of Banking Collections, Citibank N.A, India, Head of Automobile Finance -Northern India, Head of Community Banking, Northern India, and Mortgage Business, Head – Southern India, Citi India.

India accounts for 35% of cargo handled by Murmansk port this year

India’s collaboration with Russia’s Arctic region is on the rise, evidenced by its substantial contribution to cargo handled at Murmansk port. This strategic port, positioned about 2,000 km northwest of Moscow, serves as a key northern gateway for Russia, and in the first seven months of 2023, it handled a total of eight million tonnes of cargo. Notably, India’s share accounted for 35% of this cargo, primarily consisting of coal destined for the eastern coast of India.

India’s Dominant Role in Cargo Handling:

India accounts for 35% of cargo handled by Murmansk port this year

India emerges as a significant player in the cargo operations of Murmansk port, responsible for 35% of the handled cargo. This impressive figure underscores India’s economic and trade connections with the Arctic region.

Strengthening Arctic Maritime Routes:

India’s engagement extends to the Northern Sea Route (NSR), a crucial shipping pathway connecting the Asia-Pacific region and western Eurasia. The NSR offers a shorter route than traditional alternatives, enhancing the efficiency and safety of maritime transport.

Navigational Challenges and Icebreaking:

Navigating the NSR comes with challenges, including icebound Arctic seas for a substantial part of the year. The critical role of icebreaking in maintaining a functional route falls to FSUE Atomflot, a subsidiary of Rosatom, which operates nuclear-powered icebreakers.

NSR: An Alternative to Suez Canal?

While not a direct alternative to the Suez Canal, the NSR reduces the geographical gap between Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. This shorter route offers significant potential for decreasing the carbon footprint of maritime transport due to nuclear-powered icebreakers and enhanced navigation efficiency.

India-Russia Collaborative Maritime Initiatives:

India and Russia are exploring collaborative initiatives for the development of the NSR. A proposal to establish a sea corridor linking Chennai and Vladivostok is under consideration. This corridor aims to bolster international container transit through the NSR, involving a logistics hub in Vladivostok and ship-to-ship transshipment to optimize delivery times and route profitability.

Typhoon Lan Hits Japan, Causing Flooding and Power Outages

Typhoon Lan made landfall in Japan, August 15, bringing heavy rain and strong winds. The typhoon has caused flooding and power outages in several areas, and authorities have issued evacuation warnings for some residents. The typhoon made landfall near Shionomisaki in Wakayama prefecture, about 400 kilometers southwest of Tokyo. It had maximum sustained winds of 160 kilometers per hour (100 miles per hour), equivalent to a Category 2 hurricane.

The typhoon has since weakened slightly, but it is still bringing heavy rain and strong winds to Japan. The Japan Meteorological Agency has warned that the typhoon could cause flooding and landslides in some areas. Evacuation warnings have been issued for residents in several areas, including Wakayama, Osaka, and Kyoto prefectures. More than 237,000 people have been advised to evacuate their homes. The typhoon has also caused power outages in some areas. More than 100,000 households are without power in Wakayama prefecture. Authorities are urging residents to stay safe and follow the instructions of local officials.

Impact of Typhoon Lan

Typhoon Lan has caused widespread damage in Japan. The typhoon has caused flooding and landslides, and has knocked down trees and power lines. More than 237,000 people have been evacuated from their homes, and more than 100,000 households are without power.

The typhoon has also caused disruption to transportation. Flights and train services have been cancelled, and roads have been closed due to flooding and fallen trees.

The full extent of the damage caused by Typhoon Lan is still being assessed, but it is clear that the typhoon has had a significant impact on Japan.

Recovery Efforts

The Japanese government has mobilized emergency crews to help with the recovery efforts. The military has been deployed to help with rescue and relief operations, and the government has also sent food and water to affected areas.

The recovery efforts are expected to take several days, but the Japanese government is confident that they will be able to help the affected residents get back on their feet.

Tips for Staying Safe During a Typhoon

If you are in an area that is affected by a typhoon, there are a few things you can do to stay safe:

  • Stay indoors and away from windows.

  • If you must go outside, wear protective clothing and take shelter from the wind.

  • Do not drive unless it is absolutely necessary.

  • Be aware of the dangers of flooding and landslides.

  • Follow the instructions of local officials.

Typhoon Lan Route

  • August 6, 2023 – Typhoon Lan originated as a Tropical Disturbance (35 km/h).

  • August 7, 2023 – Lan became Tropical Depression (45 km/h).

  • August 8, 2023 – Lan’s speed increased to 55 km/h (8:30 AM).

  • August 8, 2023 – Lan became Tropical Storm (65 km/h) at 11:30 AM.

  • August 9, 2023 – Tropical Storm’s (Lan) seed increased to 95 km/h (2:30 AM).

  • August 9, 2023 – Became a Severe Tropical Storm (100 km/h) at 5:30 AM.

  • August 10, 2023 – Lan became a Typhoon (120 km/h) at 5:30 AM.

  • August 11, 2023 – Lan became a Very Strong Typhoon (215 km/h) at 5:30 AM.

  • August 12, 2023 – Typhoon Lan’s speed became 120 km/h.

  • August 13, 2023 – Typhoon Lan’s speed became 130 km/h (11:30 AM).

  • August 14, 2023 – Typhoon Lan’s speed increased to 155 km/h (11:30 AM).

RBI Introduces UDGAM Portal: Your Guide to Reclaiming Unclaimed Deposits

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has unveiled a groundbreaking solution for individuals seeking their unclaimed deposits. Named the UDGAM (Unclaimed Deposits – Gateway to Access Information) portal, this centralized web platform is designed to simplify the process of locating unclaimed deposits across various banks. Here’s a comprehensive breakdown of the key features and steps involved:

The Purpose of UDGAM Portal

The RBI’s UDGAM portal serves as a user-friendly tool for individuals to track down their unclaimed deposits seamlessly, consolidating information from multiple banks into a single accessible location. With the growing prevalence of unclaimed deposits, RBI has been proactively promoting awareness campaigns to educate the public about this issue. Through UDGAM, RBI aims to empower citizens to identify their unclaimed deposits and engage with their respective banks to initiate claims.

How UDGAM Works

The UDGAM portal simplifies the process of identifying and claiming unclaimed deposits by streamlining the steps involved. RBI collaborated with Reserve Bank Information Technology Pvt Ltd (ReBIT), Indian Financial Technology & Allied Services (IFTAS), and select banks to develop this platform.

Currently, the UDGAM portal provides access to unclaimed deposit information from seven banks, including prominent names like State Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, South Indian Bank, Central Bank of India, Dhanlaxmi Bank, DBS Bank India, and CitiBank N.A. For other banks, the search feature will be introduced in phases by October 15, 2023.

Registration Process on UDGAM Portal

Getting started with the UDGAM portal is a straightforward process. Follow these steps to register and initiate your search for unclaimed deposits:

  1. Visit the Portal: Head to the UDGAM portal.

  2. Register: Fill in your mobile number, name, password, and the provided CAPTCHA. After completing the form, submit your details.

  3. OTP Verification: An OTP will be sent to your registered mobile number. Enter this OTP to proceed.

  4. Login: Use your registered mobile number and password to log in to your UDGAM account.

  5. Additional OTP: Once you’ve entered your login details, you’ll be prompted to enter another OTP for added security.

  6. Enter Search Criteria: You’ll be directed to a page where you need to input the account holder’s name and the bank’s name. Additionally, choose at least one search criterion from options like PAN, Voter ID, Driving License Number, Passport Number, or Date of Birth.

  7. Initiate Search: Click on the search button to trigger the system to retrieve and display your unclaimed deposits’ details.


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