top of page

Important Current Affairs for CLAT-22nd September 2023

Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger have signed a mutual defence pact, known as the Alliance of Sahel States

Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger have come together to address the pressing issue of jihadism in the Liptako-Gourma region by signing a mutual defense pact known as the Alliance of Sahel States (AES). This landmark agreement aims to establish a framework for collective defense and mutual assistance among these nations to protect their populations from the growing threat of terrorism. Here, we delve into the key aspects of this development.

The Liptako-Gourma Charter:

The heart of this historic pact is the Liptako-Gourma Charter, which was officially signed by the military leaders of the three Sahel countries. The charter, posted on social media by Mali’s junta leader Assimi Goita, outlines the core objectives of the Alliance of Sahel States.

Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger have signed a mutual defence pact, known as the Alliance of Sahel States

Collective Defense and Mutual Assistance:

The primary goal of the AES is to create a system of collective defense and mutual assistance among Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger. This collaboration is essential to tackle the escalating threat of terrorism that has plagued the Liptako-Gourma region for years.

Combining Military and Economic Efforts:

The alliance is not limited to military cooperation alone. According to Mali’s Foreign Minister Abdoulaye Diop, it also emphasizes the importance of economic efforts. The member states recognize that addressing the root causes of instability, such as poverty and lack of development, is crucial alongside their military endeavors.

The Fight Against Terrorism:

The AES places the fight against terrorism at the top of its priority list. All three countries have been grappling with a jihadist insurgency since 2012, with the conflict spreading from northern Mali to Niger and Burkina Faso in 2015. This shared security concern has brought them closer together.

Political Instability and Coups:

The recent history of political instability in these nations adds complexity to the pact. All three countries have experienced coups since 2020, with Niger being the most recent case. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has threatened military intervention in Niger over the coup, leading Mali and Burkina Faso to assert that any such operation would be considered a “declaration of war” against them.

Duty of Assistance and Use of Armed Force:

The Liptako-Gourma Charter legally binds the member states to assist each other, including the use of armed force if necessary, in the event of an attack on any one of them. This commitment underscores their dedication to preserving sovereignty and territorial integrity.

Preventing and Settling Armed Rebellions:

Beyond responding to external threats, the alliance also commits to working together to prevent and resolve internal armed rebellions. This collaborative approach aims to enhance stability within each member state.

Challenges and Renewed Conflicts:

Mali, in addition to battling jihadist groups linked to Al Qaeda and the Islamic State, has experienced a resurgence of hostilities involving Tuareg armed groups. The situation is already straining Mali’s armed forces and raising questions about the junta’s claims of improving security.

Complex Regional Dynamics:

This pact unfolds against the backdrop of shifting regional dynamics. Mali’s junta has expelled France’s anti-jihadist force, and the UN peacekeeping mission (MINUSMA) withdrew in 2023. France’s troops have also been pushed out of Burkina Faso, while Niger’s coup leaders have terminated several military cooperation agreements with France.

Republican-Led House Panel Initiates Biden Impeachment Inquiry

The Republican-controlled U.S. House of Representatives has embarked on an impeachment inquiry against Democratic President Joe Biden. Spearheaded by Speaker Kevin McCarthy, this move signifies an attempt to score political points at the onset of the election campaign cycle. This development is steeped in political context, partly influenced by former President Donald Trump’s two impeachments and the desire to balance the score. We delve into the charges against President Biden, largely centered around allegations related to his son Hunter Biden’s business dealings.

1. Political Context:

The backdrop for this impeachment inquiry is the history of impeachments involving former President Donald Trump. The Democrats impeached Trump twice, first over allegations of abuse of power and obstruction of Congress linked to his interactions with Ukraine, and later for “incitement of insurrection” following the January 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol. Kevin McCarthy’s pursuit of Biden’s impeachment may be seen as an effort to counterbalance the scales, potentially influencing voter support for Democrats in upcoming elections.

2. Charges Against Biden:

The primary focus of the impeachment inquiry centers on Hunter Biden’s business dealings and whether President Biden benefited from them during his tenure as Vice President under Barack Obama. The charges include:

a. Foreign Payments: The House Oversight Committee’s August memorandum alleged that the Biden family received over $20 million from foreign sources in countries such as China, Kazakhstan, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine. However, investigations failed to uncover evidence suggesting that these payments directly benefited President Biden.

b. Influence Peddling: Republicans aim to scrutinize whether the Biden name was exploited as a brand to influence business decisions in favor of the President. While a former business partner of Hunter Biden claimed that Joe Biden participated in phone conversations with Hunter’s associates, a Democrat-aligned watchdog group found no substantial evidence of conflict of interest.

c. Impropriety in Hunter Biden’s Business Dealings: The inquiry will likely explore allegations of impropriety in Hunter Biden’s business activities, with potential implications for his father. These allegations encompass claims that Joe Biden attempted to pay off prosecutors to end an investigation into Burisma, a Ukrainian energy company on whose board Hunter Biden served. However, these claims, based on an “unverified FBI tip,” have not yielded supporting evidence.

Additionally, the inquiry will consider whistleblower testimonies from former Internal Revenue Service employees, which suggest that the Justice Department interfered in an investigation into Hunter Biden’s tax returns. This claim has been denied by the department and refuted by other witness testimonies presented by Republican lawmakers.

Pakistan Announces General Elections in January 2024

The Election Commission of Pakistan (ECP) has officially declared that the general elections in Pakistan will be held in the last week of January 2024. This announcement follows a series of delays in the election timeline. Initially slated for October of the same year, the elections were postponed due to the early exit of the Shehbaz Sharif government and the necessity for a comprehensive census.

Publication of Constituencies Lists

The preliminary list of constituencies is set to be made public on September 27. Subsequently, after considering complaints and feedback on the preliminary lists, the final list of constituencies will be released on November 30. This meticulous process ensures transparency and fairness in constituency delineation.

Election Schedule

The elections will span a 54-day period, culminating in the voting week at the end of January 2024. This extended timeline allows for comprehensive preparations and the smooth execution of the electoral process.

Caretaker Government and Census-Related Delay

In August of the same year, a caretaker government took office following the resignation of the Shehbaz Sharif-led coalition government just before the completion of its term. This transition pushed the election date back by an additional month. Additionally, the prior administration had stipulated that elections could only proceed after a new census was conducted and new constituency boundaries were established.

This delimitation process became imperative in light of the recent census, leading to concerns that it might further delay the polls, given that delimitation typically requires about four months to conclude.

Pressure and Constitutional Mandate

Pressure mounted on the Election Commission from various political parties to expedite the delimitation process. The Constitution mandates that the ECP should complete the delimitation within 120 days, reflecting the critical role of this process in ensuring fair and representative elections.

Political Landscape and Challenges

The upcoming elections are set against the backdrop of a significant political crisis in Pakistan. This crisis has witnessed the imprisonment of former Prime Minister Imran Khan, one of the country’s most prominent politicians, as well as a robust crackdown on his Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf party.

Caretaker Government’s Commitment

Caretaker Prime Minister Anwaar-ul-Haq Kakar has expressed unwavering commitment to upholding Pakistan’s democratic process by ensuring the timely conduct of general elections. The caretaker government emphasizes its determination to proceed without making any excuses for further delays.

Singapore Overtakes Hong Kong as World’s Freest Economy

In a significant shift, Singapore has surpassed Hong Kong to claim the title of the world’s freest economy, marking the end of Hong Kong’s 53-year reign at the top. This shift is according to a report released by the Canadian think tank Fraser Institute. The Economic Freedom of the World Index, which has been tracking economic freedom since 1970, placed Hong Kong in second place for the first time.

Factors Contributing to the Change:

Ease of International Trade:

  • The index assesses economic freedom based on various factors, including the ease of international trade. Singapore’s strong position in global trade contributed to its rise.

Freedom to Enter and Compete in Markets:

  • Another key metric is the freedom to enter and compete in markets. Singapore’s business-friendly policies have made it an attractive destination for entrepreneurs and investors.

Business Regulations:

  • The report also considers business regulations. Singapore’s regulatory environment, which promotes business growth, played a role in its ascent.

2023 Report Based on 2021 Data:

  • It’s important to note that the findings in the 2023 report are based on data from 2021, the most recent year with comparable statistics across 165 jurisdictions.

Hong Kong’s Decline:

Reasons for Slipping in Rankings:

  • Hong Kong’s decline is attributed to new regulatory barriers to entry, an increase in the cost of doing business, and limitations on employing foreign labor. These factors have collectively impacted its economic freedom score.

Political and Civil Freedom Connection:

  • The report highlights how Hong Kong’s recent shift is closely linked to civil and political freedom. The imposition of a national security law in 2020, which criminalizes secession and sedition, has raised concerns about the city’s autonomy.

Impact on Prosperity:

  • The report suggests that Hong Kong’s diminishing economic freedom could negatively affect its prosperity in the long run.

Singapore’s Rise:

Factors Leading to the Top Rank:

  • Singapore’s ascent to the top spot is attributed to improvements in its government size and regulation components. These enhancements resulted in a slight increase in its overall score.

Global Rankings:

Top 5 Freest Economies:

  1. Singapore

  2. Hong Kong

  3. Switzerland

  4. New Zealand

  5. United States

Other Notable Mentions:

  • The United Kingdom secured the ninth position, while Japan and Germany claimed the 20th and 23rd spots, respectively.

  • China maintained its ranking at 111th place.

Climate Ambition Summit Sees Absence of China, India and US

The Climate Ambition Summit (CAS) at the United Nations General Assembly on September 21 highlighted the absence of major economies crucial in shaping global emissions reduction efforts. China, the United States, and India, collectively responsible for 42% of global greenhouse gas emissions, were notably missing from this critical event. The CAS aimed to showcase leaders with credible actions and policies to uphold the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C degree goal and promote climate justice.

Limited Participation Despite Global Call to Action

Leading up to the summit, around 100 heads of state responded to Secretary-General Antonio Guterres’ call for increased climate action. However, only representatives from 34 states and 7 institutions were given speaking slots at the summit. Surprisingly, India’s neighbors, such as Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Pakistan, were among the speakers, along with emerging economies like South Africa and Brazil. Meanwhile, the European Union, Germany, France, and Canada also had a presence.

Stringent Criteria for Participation

The selection criteria for countries to secure a speaking slot at the summit were rigorous and included:

  • Updated pre-2030 Nationally Determined Contributions (as agreed in Glasgow)

  • Updated net-zero targets

  • Energy transition plans with commitments to no new coal, oil, and gas

  • Fossil fuel phase-out plans

  • More ambitious renewable energy targets

  • Green Climate Fund pledges

  • Economy-wide plans on adaptation and resilience

  • Commitment to present more ambitious economy-wide Nationally Determined Contributions featuring absolute emissions cuts and covering all gases by 2025.

Transparency and Accountability in Focus

The Climate Ambition Summit emphasized transparency and accountability in climate commitments. The UN-backed credibility standard for net-zero pledges was highlighted. It engaged governments, businesses, and local authorities with transition plans to achieve net-zero emissions.

India’s Climate Commitments and Ongoing Debate

India last updated its climate pledges in 2022, committing to reducing emissions intensity by 45% from 2005 levels by 2030. It also increased its commitment to meet 50% of its electric power needs from renewable, non-fossil fuel sources and promised to create an additional carbon sink through forest and tree cover expansion by 2030.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s commitment to achieving net-zero emissions by 2070, however, has sparked debate. While some argue that India’s commitment is insufficient to limit temperature rise below 2°C, others point to India’s low per capita emissions and its contribution to existing carbon in the atmosphere, suggesting that it has committed to more than its fair share.

NMC of India Awarded 10-Year Recognition by World Federation for Medical Education

The National Medical Commission (NMC) of India has achieved a remarkable milestone by receiving a prestigious 10-year Recognition Status from the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME). This recognition signifies a significant achievement for NMC and India’s medical education sector, highlighting their commitment to maintaining the highest standards of medical education and accreditation.

Key Highlights

Global Accreditation

The WFME recognition is a testament to the fact that Indian medical colleges have successfully met international standards in medical education. This recognition not only reflects positively on the quality of medical education in India but also aligns it with global benchmarks. This alignment has the potential to enhance the credibility and reputation of Indian medical institutions on the world stage.

Access to International Opportunities

One of the most notable benefits of this recognition is the increased access it provides to Indian medical graduates seeking postgraduate training and medical practice abroad. Many countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, require WFME recognition for foreign medical qualifications. As a result, Indian medical professionals can now explore international opportunities more readily, furthering their careers and experiences.

Academic Collaborations

With WFME accreditation in place, Indian medical colleges are poised to engage in academic collaborations and exchanges with institutions worldwide. This collaborative environment fosters the sharing of knowledge, research, and best practices in medical education and healthcare. Such international cooperation is instrumental in promoting innovation and improving healthcare globally.

Quality Assurance

WFME recognition instills a culture of quality assurance and continuous improvement within Indian medical educators and institutions. It encourages institutions to not only meet but also consistently maintain high standards in medical education. This commitment to quality ultimately benefits students and patients alike by ensuring a superior educational experience and healthcare delivery.

International Examinations

Indian students now have the opportunity to become eligible for international examinations, including the Education Commission on Foreign Medical Education and the United States Medical Licensing Examination. This expanded eligibility opens up new career possibilities and mobility for Indian medical graduates on a global scale.

Attraction for International Students

India’s newfound global recognition for its medical education standards can potentially make the country an attractive destination for international students seeking high-quality medical education. This influx of international talent can further enrich the educational landscape and promote cultural exchange.

About World Federation for Medical Education (WFME)

Mission and Role

WFME is a prominent global organization dedicated to enhancing the quality of medical education worldwide. Its primary mission is to ensure that medical education programs consistently meet and uphold the highest international standards of education and training. WFME plays a pivotal role in promoting and maintaining these international standards in medical education by facilitating collaboration and cooperation among medical education bodies worldwide.

Accreditation Program

WFME operates an esteemed accreditation program that rigorously assesses and recognizes medical schools and programs meeting its stringent standards. Institutions that receive WFME accreditation are globally recognized for providing quality medical education. This accreditation serves as a prestigious hallmark of adherence to global best practices and benchmarks in medical education.

About National Medical Commission (NMC)

Primary Regulatory Body

The National Medical Commission (NMC) stands as India’s premier regulatory body, overseeing medical education and practice throughout the nation. It serves as the primary authority responsible for establishing and upholding standards in medical education and practice across India. NMC’s dedication to ensuring that medical colleges and institutions in India adhere to the highest standards in healthcare education is reflected in its recent accomplishment of receiving WFME recognition.


NMC’s responsibilities encompass regulating the curriculum, accreditation, and licensing of medical professionals in India. It diligently oversees examinations and assessments to guarantee that only qualified and competent individuals enter the medical profession. Additionally, NMC actively represents India’s medical community on both national and international stages, advocating for the interests of medical professionals and the enhancement of healthcare education.


The National Medical Commission’s achievement of a 10-year Recognition Status from WFME is a significant milestone that underscores India’s commitment to global standards in medical education. This recognition not only elevates the quality of medical education in India but also opens up a world of international opportunities for Indian medical professionals. As India continues to align its medical education with global benchmarks, it is poised to become a hub for high-quality medical education and a magnet for aspiring medical professionals worldwide.

Indian-Origin Author Novel ‘Western Lane’ Shortlisted In Booker Prize 2023

The Booker Prize 2023 judging panel has unveiled the final list of six novels, carefully curated from the “Booker dozen” longlist of 13 titles. These novels were selected from a pool of 163 books, published between October of the previous year and September of the current year. The announcement of the prize is scheduled for November 26th.

Chetna Maroo’s “Western Lane”

London-based Indian-origin author Chetna Maroo‘s debut novel, ‘Western Lane,’ has earned a well-deserved place on the prestigious Booker Prize shortlist. The novel tells the poignant story of an 11-year-old British Gujarati girl named Gopi and her profound bonds with her family. At its core, ‘Western Lane’ explores the challenges faced by an immigrant father who endeavors to raise his family as a single parent. What sets this novel apart is its unique use of the sport of squash as a metaphor for complex human emotions, a choice celebrated by the Booker judges.

The Diverse Shortlist

Apart from ‘Western Lane,’ the Booker Prize 2023 shortlist includes a captivating array of works from talented authors around the world:

  • Prophet Song” by Paul Lynch (Ireland): Lynch’s novel promises a literary journey that is sure to captivate readers with its Irish charm and storytelling finesse.

  • The Bee Sting” by Paul Murray (Ireland): Murray’s work hints at a narrative that may leave readers buzzing with anticipation.

  • Study for Obedience” by Sarah Bernstein (Canada): Bernstein’s novel offers an exploration of obedience and its complexities in the modern world.

  • If I Survive You” by Jonathan Escoffery (US): Escoffery’s narrative takes readers on a journey of survival, navigating the intricate facets of life.

  • This Other Eden” by Paul Harding (US): Harding’s work invites readers into an “Eden” that promises to be both familiar and mysterious.

The Global Reach of the Booker Prize: A Celebration of Literary Diversity

The Booker Prize remains open to works of fiction written in English by authors from any corner of the world, as long as the books are published in the UK or Ireland. The diversity within this year’s shortlist is remarkable, encompassing authors of Indian, Jamaican, Canadian, and Irish descent, as well as acclaimed writers who have garnered recognition in various literary circles. The Booker Prize continues to be a platform that celebrates the extraordinary talents and vastly varied styles of writers, engaging readers from all walks of life.

The Booker Prize 2023 Prize Money

The Booker Prize 2023 boasts a substantial prize purse of £50,000, which will be awarded to the winning author of the first-place book. Furthermore, in acknowledgment of their exceptional contributions to contemporary literature, the remaining shortlisted authors will each receive a prize of £2,500.

Key takeaways for competitive examination

  • Chief Executive of the Booker Prize Foundation: Gaby Wood.

  • Winner of the 1997 Booker Prize for the novel “The God of Small Things”: Arundhati Roy.

  • Chair of the judging panel of the Booker Prize 2023: Canadian novelist Esi Edugyan.


bottom of page