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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-24th August 2023

Chandrayaan-3 becomes world’s most viewed live-stream on YouTube

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has achieved an impressive feat on YouTube’s live streaming platform. The Chandrayaan-3 Mission Soft-landing LIVE Telecast, broadcasted on August 23, 2023, captured the attention of over 80 lakh peak concurrent viewers (PCVs), making it the most-watched live stream globally.

The Chandrayaan-3 Mission took the top spot in terms of peak concurrent viewers, beating the Brazil vs Croatia football match from the FIFA World Cup 2022 that had 61 lakh PCVs and the the Brazil vs South Korea football match from the same tournament with 52 lakh PCVs. ISRO also beat Cariocão 2023 Serie A semi-final between Vasco da Gama and Flamengo with 47 lakh PCVs. The top names in the list include Crew Demo-2 by SpaceX (40 lakh), the K-pop sensation BTS’s ‘Butter’ Official MV (37 lakh) and Johnny Depp v Amber Heard Defamation Trial (35 lakh).

About the Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3, the third lunar mission by India, garnered an immense audience during its live telecast as space enthusiasts and curious minds alike tuned in to witness the endeavour’s crucial moments.

This achievement has elevated India to a distinguished position as the fourth nation – subsequent to the United States, China, and Russia – to achieve a successful moon landing. However, India’s triumph is uniquely etched in history as it secures the pioneering distinction of being the initial nation to touch down on the southern hemisphere of Earth’s solitary natural satellite.

BRICS Summit 2023 Highlights: Strengthening Global South Cooperation and Expansion Ambitions

The 15th BRICS Summit took place in Johannesburg, bringing together leaders from Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The summit aimed to enhance cooperation among these emerging economies, discuss global concerns, and potentially expand the group’s membership.

BRICS Summit 2023: Opening and Leaders’ Participation

  • The 15th BRICS Summit occurred in Johannesburg, focusing on the cooperation of the BRICS nations – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.

  • The summit marked the first in-person meeting of BRICS leaders since 2019, reflecting the significance of discussing shared issues.

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India and Chinese President Xi Jinping were among the leaders attending.

  • Modi emphasized the importance of the summit for addressing issues concerning the Global South and developmental matters.

BRICS Summit 2023: Expanded Dialogue and Outreach

  • Prime Minister Modi announced his participation in BRICS-Africa Outreach and BRICS Plus Dialogue events, highlighting the intention to engage with other nations beyond the core BRICS grouping.

  • The inclusion of guest countries provided an opportunity for broader discussions on global challenges and development.

Diplomatic Engagements

  • Chinese President Xi Jinping arrived in Johannesburg for the summit, focusing on enhancing China’s involvement in global affairs.

  • Xi’s change of plans, skipping a business forum and sending the Chinese Commerce Minister, raised questions about the reasons behind this decision.

  • African countries urged China to shift its focus from infrastructure development to local industrialization to align with the Africa Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA).

BRICS Summit 2023: Key Addresses and Vision

  • Leaders like Modi, South African President Cyril Ramaphosa, and Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva emphasized the significance of BRICS in fostering cooperation among developing nations.

  • Ramaphosa highlighted the need for global financial institutions to undergo reform to better address the challenges faced by developing economies.

  • Brazilian President Lula da Silva clarified that BRICS aimed to organize the Global South and was not meant to rival established powers like the United States and G7 economies.

BRICS Summit 2023: Expansion Ambitions

  • The possibility of expanding BRICS to include more countries generated discussions during the summit.

  • China and Russia’s aspirations to bolster BRICS aimed to counterbalance the influence of Western powers amid global tensions.

  • South African President Ramaphosa expressed support for expanding BRICS and revealed that over 20 nations, including Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Egypt, had formally applied to join.

BRICS Summit 2023: Collective Influence and Global Partnerships

  • President Xi Jinping called for increased collaboration between China and South Africa to bolster their influence in international affairs, particularly in the Global South.

  • Xi emphasized support for South Africa’s greater role in the G20, highlighting the nations’ partnership and pursuit of justice in global affairs.

BRICS Summit 2023: Economic and Growth Aspects

  • Prime Minister Modi highlighted India’s rapid economic growth and projected it to become a $5 trillion economy in the near future.

  • BRICS nations sought to strengthen cooperation to address economic challenges and enhance their combined influence on the global stage.

Kerala’s First AI School Launched In Thiruvananthapuram

The state of Kerala introduces its first AI school situated at Santhigiri Vidyabhavan in Thiruvananthapuram. It was inaugurated by the Former President of India, Ram Nath Kovind. This inaugural ceremony heralded the inception of a fresh era in the educational domain, distinguished by innovative technology and forward-looking pedagogical methods.

This initiative is the brainchild of a collaboration between iLearning Engines (ILE) USA, a renowned educational platform, and Vedhik eSchool, steered by a committee of distinguished professionals including former Chief Secretaries, DGPs, and Vice Chancellors.

A Leap into the Future: Unveiling the AI School

The AI School, meticulously crafted by the iLearning Engines and Vedhik eSchool partnership, emerges as a beacon of innovative learning. Rooted in artificial intelligence technology, it promises an unparalleled educational experience for students, fortified by international standards and an unwavering commitment to quality learning. This revolutionary approach ensures that the benefits of school studies transcend classroom hours, extending to the virtual realm through the school’s website.

Empowering Excellence: The Role of AI School

The heart of the AI School initiative lies in its potential to elevate academic performance. Aligned with the National School Accreditation Standards, based on the transformative New National Education Policy (NEP) of 2020, the AI School charts a course toward higher grades and holistic education. This potent blend of technology and pedagogy ignites a renaissance in education, reshaping the way students engage with knowledge and examinations.

Key Highlights of Kerala’s First AI School:

1.Target Audience and Educational Spectrum

Initially tailored for students in classes 8 to 12, the AI School opens its doors to a diverse range of learners, spanning different age groups and backgrounds.

2.Comprehensive Learning Ecosystem

The AI School boasts a multifaceted learning ecosystem, embracing a plethora of resources and tools to nurture well-rounded individuals. From Multi-Teacher Revision Support to Psychometric Counseling, the curriculum is thoughtfully designed to foster academic excellence and personal growth.

3.Gateway to Future Opportunities

Beyond traditional academics, the AI School positions itself as a gateway to future opportunities. By offering intensive training for competitive exams, including but not limited to JEE, NEET, CUET, CLAT, GMAT, and IELTS, the school ensures that its students are prepared to navigate the rigors of higher education.

4.Nurturing Global Aspirations

Guidance for higher studies and scholarships in prestigious foreign universities stands as a testament to the AI School’s commitment to realizing students’ global aspirations.

5.Quality Education, Minimal Financial Strain

The AI School breaks barriers by making high-quality education accessible to all. With its artificial intelligence-based digital resources available through the school’s website, the burden of additional financial expenses is effectively alleviated.

6.A Holistic Educational Solution

At its core, the AI School emerges as a holistic solution to the multifaceted challenges faced by students and parents alike. Whether it’s tackling traditional studies, navigating exams, or excelling in competitive assessments, the AI School stands as an unwavering companion.

US FDA Approves Pfizer’s Maternal RSV Vaccine To Protect Infants

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently grants approval to the first vaccine created to forestall (Respiratory Syncytial Virus) RSV-associated LRTD (Lower respiratory tract disease) and severe cases in infants spanning birth to 6 months. This momentous decision is fostering optimism among parents and healthcare providers working diligently to protect the well-being of these susceptible infants.

A New Shield for Infants: Pfizer’s Maternal RSV Vaccine

The FDA’s approval centers around Pfizer’s maternal respiratory syncytial vaccine, known by the brand name Abrysvo. This vaccine represents a crucial milestone in maternal and infant healthcare, as it is the first to be approved for use specifically in pregnant individuals. It is intended for administration between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation and is delivered through a single-dose injection into the muscle. This innovation in vaccine development and administration could significantly impact the prevalence and severity of RSV-related illnesses among infants.

Tackling the Leading Cause of Infant Lower Respiratory Tract Disease

RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus) is notorious for being the primary cause of lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in infants. Infants have faced persistent risks from RSV, frequently resulting in lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) like bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The most critical period for RSV-related health issues usually occurs within the first three months of life. The availability of a vaccine licensed for use during pregnancy is a monumental advancement. By extending protection to the earliest stages of life, healthcare providers aim to curb the incidence of RSV-related illnesses and alleviate the burdens placed on families and healthcare systems.

Seasonal Challenge and Long-Term Effects

In the United States, RSV follows a seasonal pattern, with its circulation typically starting in the fall and peaking during the winter months. The FDA acknowledges that by the age of two, most children are expected to have encountered RSV. While RSV infections might be common, their consequences can be severe, leading to bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and other life-threatening conditions. Infants, especially those in their first year of life, face the highest risk of RSV-associated LRTD. In fact, RSV is a leading cause of infant hospitalization in the United States.

Reducing RSV-Related Impact through Extended Protection

By encompassing pregnant women and their newborns within its protective scope, this vaccine holds the promise of substantially diminishing the repercussions of RSV-related illnesses on families and healthcare systems alike. As the field of medical science forges ahead, this significant milestone sets the stage for a more robust and healthier future for the most tender and susceptible members of our society.

Ratan Tata conferred with Maharashtra govt.’s ‘Udyog Ratna’ award

Eminent industrialist Ratan Tata was conferred with the first ever ‘Udyog Ratna’ award instituted by the Maharashtra government. The award was presented to the 85-year-old chairman emeritus of Tata Sons by Chief Minister Eknath Shinde and Deputy Cheif Ministers Devendra Fadnavis and Ajit Pawar at the industrialist’s home in Colaba in south Mumbai.

The contribution of the Tata group in all sectors is immense. The steel-to-salt group operates in more than 100 countries across six continents. In 2021-22, the collective revenue of Tata companies stood at $128 billion. The honour comprised a shawl, a citation and a memento from the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC). The award comprises a shawl, a citation, and a memento. It is presented by the Chief Minister of Maharashtra.

About the Udyog Ratna award

The Udyog Ratna award is a prestigious award that recognizes the achievements of outstanding industrialists in Maharashtra. It is a testament to the contribution of these individuals to the economic development of the state. The award is named after the Sanskrit word “udyog”, which means “enterprise” or “industry”. It is a fitting name for an award that celebrates the achievements of those who have helped to build and grow the industrial sector of Maharashtra. The Udyog Ratna award is a great source of pride for the recipients, and it is a reminder of their contribution to the state’s economic development. It is also an inspiration to others who are working to make a difference in the industrial sector.

International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition

International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition is observed on August 23. It commemorates the day when an uprising began in Saint Domingue, now called Haiti, on August 23, 1791, against the slave trade. Haiti was a French settlement and a centre of the slave trade across Europe. The uprising led to a revolution against the rulers of the country.

Theme of the day

2023 Theme: “Fighting slavery’s legacy of racism through transformative education

Significance of the day

The International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition is an important day to remember the victims of the slave trade and to reaffirm our commitment to fighting racism and discrimination. It is also a day to celebrate the progress that has been made and to recommit ourselves to building a more just and equitable world.

Here are some of the ways that the International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition can be observed:

  • Holding educational events and discussions about the slave trade.

  • Visiting museums and historic sites that commemorate the slave trade.

  • Reading books and articles about the slave trade.

  • Supporting organizations that are working to combat racism and discrimination.

  • Making a personal commitment to fight against racism and discrimination in our own lives.

UNESCO Initiative

UNESCO observes this day to remind the people “to continue to analyse and criticise such practices that may transform into modern forms of slavery and exploitation”. The day is observed to remember and honour those who were dehumanised under the cruel system.

History of the day

The day of the uprising was commemorated for the first time in 1998. It was designated by UNESCO and was also observed in Senegal in 1999. The slave trade was rampant in Europe those days and people from Africa and Asia were traded. Slaves were transported to the colonial settlements of Haiti, the Caribbean Islands, and other parts of the world. The international slave trade was abolished on March 25, 1807.

First Mission of Moon

The Apollo 11 mission, first mission of Moon, stands as one of the most significant milestones in human history, making the first successful endeavor to land human on the Moon. Apollo 11, launched on 16th July, 1969 and returning on 24th July, captivated the world’s attention and forever altered our understanding of space exploration and human potential.

Launch and Journey to the Moon

The colossal Saturn V Launch Vehicle, standing at 111 meters tall and weighing over 6.6 million pounds, propelled the Apollo 11 spacecraft into space from Cape Kennedy (now Cape Canaveral), Florida.

The crew of Apollo 11 consisted of three astronauts:

  • Neil Armstrong: Mission Commander

  • Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin: Lunar Module Pilot

  • Michael Collins: Commander Module Pilot

Composition of Spacecraft

The spacecraft was comprised of two main parts:

  • The commander module: Columbia, where Collins remained in lunar orbit.

  • The lunar module: Eagle, which Armstrong and Aldrin used to descend to the Moon’s surface.

Landing and Historic Moonwalk

After entering lunar orbit, Armstrong and Aldrin transferred to the lunar module and prepared for the descent. On 20th July 1969, they initiated a powered descent to the lunar surface. During the descent, the guidance computer triggered alarms due to memory overflows, but the astronauts continued with confidence, successfully maneuvering to avoid a hazardous landing site.

At an altitude of about 15,000 meters, Armstrong took manual control and steered the lunar module to a safer landing spot. As the craft touched down, Armstrong’s words resonated through history: “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.”

Armstrong and Aldrin explored the Moon’s surface for over two hours, conducting experiments, taking photographs and collecting rock and soil samples. They also set up scientific instruments to measure various aspects of the lunar environment. The lunar module’s ascent stage then carried them back to lunar orbit, where they rejoined Collins in the command module.

Return and Legacy of Apollo 11 mission

After rejoining with Collins in lunar orbit, the crew began their journey back to Earth. They splashed down safely in the Pacific Ocean on 24th July 1969. Upon their journey, the crew was placed in quarantine to prevent the potential spread of any lunar microorganisms, though it was unlikely they had encountered any.

The success of Apollo 11 mission was an evidence of human ingenuity, determination and collaboration. It marked the culmination of the Apollo program’s efforts to achieve President John E. Kennedy’s goal of landing humans on the Moon and returning them safely to Earth.

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