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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-28th December 2022

Pralay Ballistic Missiles :India’s First Tactical Quasi-Ballistic Missile

A high-level meeting of the Defence Ministry cleared the acquisition of around 120 pralay missiles for the armed forces and their deployment along the borders.

The decision by the Defence Ministry to procure indigenous short-range ballistic surface-to-surface (SRBM) missile Pralay, a conventional weapon that has become ready for induction in just seven years, gives Indian military the heft to its war-fighting capabilities. A high-level meeting of the Defence Ministry cleared the acquisition of around 120 pralay missiles for the armed forces and their deployment along the borders. India now permits the use of ballistic missiles in tactical roles, therefore the acquisition of these ballistic missiles is considered a significant development for the nation.

Why Pralay Is So deadly: 

Significance Of This ballistic missile:

The missile will be India’s first tactical quasi-ballistic missile and will give the armed forces the capability to hit enemy positions and key installations in actual battlefield areas. Pralay, along with the BrahMos supersonic cruise missile, will form the crux of India’s planned Rocket Force — a concept that was envisaged by former Chief of Defence Staff (CDS), the late General Bipin Rawat. Sources in the defence establishment made it clear that only conventional missiles would come under the planned Rocket Force as and when it’s ready, while nuclear weapons would continue to be under the ambit of the Strategic Forces Command.

About The Pralay missile project:

The Pralay missile project was sanctioned in 2015 and is a derivative of the Prahaar missile programme, which was first tested in 2011.

Sources said Pralay was formed through elements from multiple missile programmes that include the K-series of submarine-launched ballistic missiles and the ballistic defence shield programme.

The canisterised Pralay missile, with a range of 150-500 kilometres, has been developed according to the specifications and requirement of the Army, which was looking to arm itself with a tactical conventional missile that could be used on the battlefield.

Incidentally, both China and Pakistan have tactical ballistic missiles.

Pralay is powered with a solid propellant rocket motor and multiple new technologies and, according to sources, accuracy is a highlight of this missile.

It is capable of carrying a conventional warhead of about 350 kg to 700 kg, which gives it a deadly punitive capability.

It can carry a high explosive preformed fragmentation warhead, penetration-cum-blast (PCB) and runaway denial penetration submunition (RDPS).

While BrahMos has high agility, stealth and even loitering capability, Pralay has the advantage of speed and countering it is a difficult task, even for modern air defence systems.

Why Pralay Is So deadly: 

The Indian missile can be compared to China’s Dong Feng 12 and the Russian Iskander missile that has been used in the ongoing war with Ukraine. The US Army is in the process of increasing the range of a similar short-range ballistic missile called the Precision Strike Missile (PrSM). What makes Pralay deadly is that it is a quasi-ballistic weapon, which means that while it has a low trajectory and is largely ballistic, it can manoeuvre in flight. It has been designed to evade interceptor missiles.

Power ministry, DRDO Ink Pact to Install Early Warning Systems for Power Stations

The Ministry of Power announced that it has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) to implement an early warning system.

The Ministry of Power announced that it has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) to implement an early warning system for vulnerable hydro projects and power stations in hilly regions. The MoU was signed by Alok Kumar, Secretary at the Ministry of Power, and Dr Samir V Kamat, Secretary of the Department of Defence (R&D) and Chairman of DRDO.

What’s More The Ministry Is Doing:

Along with the DRDO, the Ministry of Power has also signed other MoUs with organisations like the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research’s (CSIR), National Geophysical Research Institute, the Indian Meteorological Department, the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology and the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC).

The master control room for the EWS for vulnerable hydroelectricity projects has been set up by NHPC. It was launched in August 2022. The public utility company also launched a cloud-based software application for the EWS, which will help it monitor the 47 vulnerable projects across the country that were identified by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA). The software was integrated with information from other stakeholders in the project including weather forecasting data from the IMD.

Significance of This Move:

The early warning systems will alert stakeholders in the case of natural hazards like avalanches, landslides, glaciers, glacial lakes and more.

The Ministry of Power and the DRDO will also be working together to build mitigation and damage control systems against these disasters.

The Early Warning System has been envisioned as a risk reduction system that combines hazard monitoring, forecasting and prediction, with disaster risk assessment, communication and preparedness.

The system will allow for timely action in the face of possible disasters in order to minimise risk and damage. 

About Early Warning System (EWS):

It is an adaptive measure to climate change, which uses integrated communication systems to help communities prepare for dangerous climate-related events.

A successful EWS saves lives and jobs, land and infrastructure and provides long-term sustainability.

This will aid in planning in the public sector, saving money in the long run and protecting economies.

Home Ministry approved the name change of two places in Uttar Pradesh

Name change of two places in Uttar Pradesh:

Stage is all set in Uttar Pradesh to rename two places after the state government got the approval by Union Home Ministry. The Union Home Ministry has given its consent to change the names, a Municipal Council in Gorakhpur and a village in Deoria, both in eastern UP, following recommendations from the state government. The ‘no-objection’ certificates were issued by the Union Home ministry for changing the name of ‘Mundera Baazar’ municipal council in Gorakhpur district to ‘Chauri-Chaura’ and that of ‘Telia Afghan’ village in Deoria district to ‘Telia Shukla’.

Why Mundera Bazar Municipal Council  name changed?

Mundera Bazar Municipal Council will now become Chauri-Chaura Municipal Council to commemorate 100-years of the Chauri-Chaura incident which had taken place on February 4, 1922 in Gorakhpur district. The police under British rule had opened fire on a large group of protesters then participating in the Non-Cooperation Movement called by Mahatma Gandhi. Consequently, the demonstrators had retaliated by setting a police station ablaze killing all of its occupants. The incident led to the death of three civilians and 22 policemen.

Why Telia Afghan village name changed?

As per the local sources in Deoria, Telia Afghan village is already popular as Telia Shukla village under Barhaj tehsil of the eastern UP district. However, in land revenue records, it is registered as Telia Afghan which will now be changed to Telia Shukla. As per the sources, the ‘no-objection’ certificate to change the name of any place is given by the Centre after taking consent from the Ministry of Railways, Department of Posts and the Survey of India. Moreover, to change the name of a village town or a city, an executive order is needed.

Punjab Ranks 2nd in Average Monthly Income Per Agricultural Household: Govt

Punjab ranks second in the country in average monthly income per agricultural household. The fact came to light in a data provided by Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Narendra Toamr.

Punjab ranks second in the country in average monthly income per agricultural household. The fact came to light in a data provided by Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Narendra Singh Tomar in the ongoing session of Rajya Sabha.

The Monthly Income Across The States:

As per information, Meghalaya tops across the country with average monthly income per agricultural household (Rs 29,348). Punjab (Rs 26,701) is followed by Haryana (Rs 22,841), Arunachal Pradesh (Rs 19,225), Jammu and Kashmir (Rs 18,918), group of Union Territories (Rs 18,511), Mizoram (Rs 17,964), Kerala (Rs 17,915), group of northeastern states (Rs 16,863), Uttarakhand (Rs 13,552), Karnataka (Rs 13,441), Gujarat (Rs 12,631), Rajasthan (Rs 12,520), Sikkim (Rs 12,447) and Himachal Pradesh (Rs 12,153).

Crops In Punjab:

The prominent crops produced in Punjab include rice, wheat, maize, bajra, sugarcane, oilseeds, and cotton, but rice and wheat alone constitute 80 per cent of the total gross cropped area.

First case of deadly brain-eating amoeba infection reported in South Korea.

Brain-eating amoeba infection reported in South Korea: For the first time ever, a rare and potentially fatal brain-eating amoeba has been discovered in South Korea. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare and serious infection caused by the amoeba naegleria fowleri, which is commonly found in warm freshwater and soil.

Brain-eating amoeba infection reported in South Korea: Key Points

The 50-year-old affected person has passed away, the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA) reports. The man had returned to Korea following a four-month sojourn in Thailand.

Although it is not feasible for the sickness to spread from person to person, the KDCA has encouraged people to stay away from freshwater lakes and use caution when participating in water sports.

In order to prevent water from entering the nose when engaging in aquatic activities, the government has also encouraged people to use nose clips or hold their nostrils shut.

When contaminated water enters the nose and travels to the brain, it can result in the rare but frequently fatal infection known as PAM.

Within five days of infection, symptoms usually start to show up and can include headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting in addition to stiff neck, seizures, and altered mental status.

The infection can cause a coma and even death in extreme circumstances.

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Brain-eating amoeba infection: Primary amebic meningoencephalitis

The rarity of the amoeba and the lack of specialised diagnostic testing make PAM currently incurable and make the infection challenging to identify. Medications are frequently used in conjunction with supportive care to treat problems and manage inflammation.

The KDCA stated that it is attempting to stop new diseases from occurring and has advised the public to use caution when partaking in water-related activities. The organization has also advised individuals to stay out of warm, stagnant water bodies and to stay out of the water if they have cuts or abrasions on their skin.

India votes for UNSC resolution on psychological well-being of UN personnel

Brain-eating amoeba infection: First Case in South Korea

Infection with Naegleria fowleri has never been previously documented in South Korea. There have been 143 recorded instances in the United States from 1962 to 2018, with the majority happening in the southern states, despite the fact that it is an uncommon disease and it is difficult to determine the precise number of occurrences. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that the disease affects between 1,000 and 2,000 people worldwide each year.

Zeliangrong United Front Signs a Peace Agreement with Central and Manipur Government

The tripartite agreement was signed by the central and Manipur governments and the Zeliangrong United Front (ZUF) rebel group which mostly operated in Manipur.

The Centre signed a peace agreement with a Manipur insurgent group, which agreed to give up violence and join the peaceful democratic process. The tripartite agreement was signed by the central and Manipur governments and the Zeliangrong United Front (ZUF) rebel group which mostly operated in Manipur.The agreement was signed by senior home ministry officials and the government of Manipur and the representatives of ZUF in presence of Chief Minister N Biren Singh.

More About This Transition:

The government of Manipur entered into a cessation of operation agreement in New Delhi with ZUF that had been active for more than a decade. Representatives of the armed group agreed to abjure violence and join the peaceful democratic process as established by law of the land.

Significance of This Move:

The agreement provides for rehabilitation and re-settlement of the armed cadres. A joint monitoring group will be constituted to oversee enforcement of the agreed ground rules. This will be a significant boost to the peace process in Manipur.

About Zeliangrong United Front (ZUF) :

The Zeliangrong United Front (ZUF) was established in 2011. It is a Naga group which is active in Manipur. The group claims its objective is to safeguard the interest of ‘Zeliangrong Naga tribes in Manipur, Assam and Nagaland. It aimed to create a ‘Zeliangrong’ state within the Indian Union comprising the Zeliangrong Naga tribe’s area in Manipur, Assam and Nagaland. The ZUF is listed as one of the 13 active insurgent group in Manipur by the South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP).

Worldline ePayments India Gets RBI’s Nod to Act as Payment Aggregator.

Worldline ePayments India (WEIPL), a leader in digital payments, has received in-principle authorisation from the Reserve Bank Of India (RBI) to act as a payment aggregator (PA). The authorisation by the RBI was under the provisions of the Guidelines on Regulation of Payment dated March 17, 2020.

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About The Worldline ePayments India (WEIPL):

Worldline ePayments India, part of Worldline group, offers solutions for all sorts of payment needs offering in-store, online, and omnichannel payments to its customers.

About Payment Aggregators and Payment Gateways:

Payment Aggregators facilitate e-commerce sites and merchants in accepting payment instruments from the customers for completion of their payment obligations without the need for merchants to create a separate payment integration system of their own. Example: Billdesk.

Payment Gateways are entities that provide technology infrastructure to route and facilitate processing of an online payment transaction without any involvement in handling of funds. PGs in India mainly include banks.

A Payment Gateway allows the merchants to deal in a specific payment option put on the portal, whereas a Payment Aggregator allows one to have multitudes of options for payment. Thus, a Payment Aggregator covers a payment gateway in its ambit.

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