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Important Current Affairs for CLAT-5th October 2023

World Nature Day 2023, Date, Significance and Celebrations

World Nature Day, established by the World Nature Organization (WNO) on October 3, 2010, serves as a crucial platform to raise awareness about the challenges our environment faces, particularly due to climate change. This annual celebration unites individuals, groups, and organizations worldwide in their commitment to spreading information about climate change and advocating for its mitigation. In this article, we delve into the significance, celebration, and key facts about World Nature Day, highlighting its vital role in addressing the environmental issues that affect us all.

World Nature Day 2023, Theme

This year, the theme for World Nature Conversation Day 2023 is ‘Forests and Livelihoods: Sustaining People and Planet’.

Significance of World Nature Day 2023

World Nature Day holds significant importance in the global calendar as it addresses some of the most pressing environmental issues facing our planet. Its primary objectives include:

  • Raising Climate Change Awareness: The initiative aims to combat ignorance about climate change, ensuring that people across the globe understand the urgency of the situation.

  • Promoting Eco-Friendly Practices: World Nature Day encourages eco-friendly practices such as recycling, reducing plastic usage, and adopting sustainable lifestyles.

  • Contribution to Saving the Planet: By fostering a sense of responsibility for the environment, this day seeks to inspire collective action to protect and preserve the Earth for future generations.

Celebrating World Nature Day 2023

World Nature Day is celebrated in various ways, involving people of all ages and backgrounds. Here are some common activities associated with its celebration:

  • Tree Planting: Communities often come together to plant trees, contributing to reforestation efforts and combating deforestation, a major contributor to climate change.

  • Awareness Campaigns: Organizations and individuals organize awareness campaigns, seminars, and workshops to educate people about climate change, its impacts, and potential solutions.

  • Rallies and Demonstrations: Peaceful rallies and demonstrations take place in cities worldwide, drawing attention to environmental concerns and demanding action from governments and businesses.

  • Social Media Engagement: Social media platforms play a significant role in the celebration of World Nature Day. The use of hashtags like #WorldNatureDay allows individuals to share their involvement, spreading the message globally.

Key Facts About World Nature Day 2023

Understanding the current state of our environment is essential for addressing climate change effectively. Here are some key facts about the state of our planet:

  • Carbon Dioxide Levels: The atmosphere’s carbon dioxide concentration has reached 408 parts per million, the highest level in 3 million years, contributing to global warming.

  • Recorded Temperatures: The warmest recorded year was 2016, with an average temperature 1.78 degrees Fahrenheit higher than in the mid-20th century, signaling the ongoing impact of climate change.

  • Deforestation’s Role: Human-induced deforestation is responsible for approximately 11% of global carbon emissions, making reforestation efforts critical.

  • Amazon Rainforest: The Amazon rainforest stores 50% of the region’s carbon, making it a vital carbon powerhouse and emphasizing the importance of its preservation.

  • Climate Vulnerability: Approximately 800 million people, or 11% of the world’s population, are vulnerable to climate change’s adverse effects, including droughts, heat waves, floods, and extreme weather events.

  • Coastal Ecosystems: Coastal ecosystems store ten times more carbon than tropical forests, but many coastal forests, especially mangroves, are severely depleted due to human activities.

  • Deforestation Impact: The world has lost approximately 1 million hectares of forests due to deforestation, contributing to habitat loss and carbon emissions.

National Wildlife Week 2023: Dates, Theme, Purpose and History

The National Zoological Park recently kick-started the celebration of the 69th Wildlife Week, a significant event aimed at raising awareness about the importance of wildlife conservation in India. This year’s theme, “Partnerships for Wildlife Conservation,” reflects the collaborative efforts required to protect and preserve the nation’s rich biodiversity. The festivities coincide with the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, reinforcing the principles of Ahinsa (non-violence) and compassion for all living beings. The choice of dates for Wildlife Week, spanning from October 2 to October 8, holds deep symbolism.

History of National Wildlife Week

National Wildlife Week in India has a storied history that dates back to 1952 when the Indian Board of Wildlife first conceptualized the idea. Originally observed as Wildlife Day in 1955, it evolved into a week-long celebration in 1957, gaining significance as a platform to highlight the long-term objectives of safeguarding the country’s precious wildlife.

Dachigam National Park: A Milestone Moment

One of the most notable milestones associated with Wildlife Week is the opening of Dachigam National Park to the public during the 1981 celebration. This momentous decision allowed tourists and nature enthusiasts to explore the park’s breathtaking biodiversity, including the iconic hangul or Kashmir stag. The exposure to Dachigam’s unique wildlife contributed significantly to a greater understanding and appreciation of the region’s natural heritage.

Significance of the Dates

This week-long celebration coincides with the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, a visionary leader who championed the principles of Ahinsa (non-violence) and compassion toward all living beings. The convergence of these dates serves as a poignant reminder of the moral responsibility shared by all to protect and nurture India’s diverse wildlife.

Theme of UN World Wildlife Day 2023

The theme of “Partnerships for Wildlife Conservation” aligns with the overarching theme of UN World Wildlife Day in 2023. This theme underscores the critical role that partnerships and collaborative efforts play in ensuring the survival of endangered species and the conservation of their habitats.

Activities Planned for Wildlife Week 2023

The activities planned for Wildlife Week at the National Zoological Park are designed to promote inclusive and collective participation in the cause of wildlife conservation. These activities include:

1. Educational Workshops and Seminars

Educational workshops and seminars will be conducted to inform the public about the importance of wildlife conservation. These events will focus on raising awareness and providing information on the various challenges facing India’s wildlife.

2. Wildlife Photography Exhibitions

Wildlife photography exhibitions will showcase the beauty and diversity of India’s wildlife. This visual medium serves as a powerful tool to inspire appreciation and protection of the country’s natural treasures.

3. Guided Tours and Nature Walks

Guided tours and nature walks within the National Zoological Park will provide visitors with an opportunity to connect with wildlife firsthand. These experiences aim to foster a deeper understanding of the importance of preserving natural habitats.

4. Conservation Pledges

Visitors will have the chance to make conservation pledges, committing to take specific actions to support wildlife conservation efforts. These pledges can range from reducing plastic usage to participating in local conservation initiatives.

5. Art and Craft Workshops

Art and craft workshops will encourage creativity among children and adults, allowing them to express their love for wildlife through various artistic mediums.

PayU elevates Anirban Mukherjee as Global CEO

In a significant move, Anirban Mukherjee, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of PayU India, has been promoted to the role of global CEO of PayU. This move signals a strategic shift within PayU to concentrate on its Indian operations and adapt to the rapidly evolving digital payments landscape in the country. Laurent Le Moal, the current Global CEO, will transition to an advisory role within the company.

Leadership Transition

Anirban Mukherjee will be taking over from Laurent Le Moal, who has decided to step back from the day-to-day operational management of the business. However, Le Moal will continue to be involved with Prosus and PayU in an advisory capacity.

Anirban Mukherjee, New Global CEO

Anirban Mukherjee’s appointment as Global CEO signifies PayU’s commitment to a more India-centric strategy. India’s digital payments sector is experiencing unprecedented growth and innovation, driven by progressive regulatory reforms. With this change in leadership, PayU aims to capitalize on the abundant opportunities presented by this dynamic landscape.

Responsibilities of Anirban Mukherjee as New Global CEO

In his new role as Global CEO, Anirban Mukherjee will be entrusted with the overall business operations of PayU on a global scale. His reporting line will directly lead to Ervin Tu, the interim CEO of Prosus and Naspers, the parent company of PayU. This move signifies a pivotal moment in PayU’s journey as it gears up to shape the future of the global digital payments industry.

PayU’s Presence in India

PayU India claims to serve over 450,000 merchants, work with more than 70 large banks through its paytech platform called Wibmo and provide credit facilities to over 2 million customers in India. The company’s business in India continues to grow and it plays a vital role in the country’s dynamic fintech sector.

Digital India Initiative

PayU sees the Indian government’s Digital India initiative and the forward-thinking regulations of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) as significant opportunities for its growth. The company aims to build a robust fintech presence in India, capitalizing on these favourable factors.

Prosus’s Role

Prosus, the parent company of PayU, has played a crucial role in the growth of PayU. Anirban Mukherjee, in his role as global CEO, will closely collaborate with Ervin Tu, the Interim CEO of Prosus and Naspers, as PayU enters the next phase of its journey in India and Southeast Asia.

Continuous Growth

Prosus’s payments and fintech segment has been impressive growth, with a consolidated revenue increase of 52 percent to $903 million in the fiscal year 2023. PayU is also experiencing accelerated growth in Southeast Asia and is excited about the opportunities for further innovation and expansion in this region.

India Participates in the 5th Meeting of Moscow Format

In a significant diplomatic gathering held in the Russian City of Kazan, representatives from various countries convened for the fifth meeting of the Moscow Format Consultation on Afghanistan. The meeting, which took place on September 29, 2023, featured special representatives and senior officials from India, Russia, China, Pakistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, among others. Notably, the acting minister for Foreign Affairs appointed by the Taliban in Afghanistan was also in attendance, alongside representatives from Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Turkey.

Objective of the Moscow Format Meeting

The primary focus of this high-level meeting was to discuss the ongoing situation in Afghanistan, with an emphasis on regional security and the integration of Afghanistan into border regional economic processes.

Outcome of the Meeting

One of the key outcomes of the meeting was a collective call on the Taliban to establish a government system that is “truly inclusive” and represents the interests of all key ethnopolitical groups within the country. Additionally, the participants urged the Taliban to intensify their efforts in counter-terrorism and anti-drug activities.

Urgent Need to Unblock Afghan Assets

A crucial point of consensus among the attendees was the immediate and unconditional unblocking of Afghan assets by Washington and its allies. These assets are essential for the post-conflict reconstruction of Afghanistan’s economy. The attendees vehemently opposed any return of US and NATO military structures to Afghan or neighboring territory, emphasizing that such a move would be unacceptable.

Adoption of the Kazan Declaration

Towards the conclusion of the meeting, the participants jointly adopted the “Kazan Declaration of the Moscow Format of Consultation on Afghanistan,” signifying their collective commitment to addressing the multifaceted challenges facing Afghanistan and the wider region.

International Pressure on Taliban at the United Nation

The international gathering follows earlier discussions at the United Nations, where 11 countries expressed their concerns over the treatment of women and girls in Afghanistan under the Taliban regime. The countries, including the United States, France, Britain, Japan, Brazil, the United Arab Emirates, Switzerland, Ecuador, Albania and Malta, described the Taliban’s actions as “gender-based violence” and called for global support to define “gender apartheid” in international law.

Women’s Rights Advocacy in Afghanistan

The Women’s Rights Council representative urged the Taliban to revoke all restrictive policies on women’s education and work. Afghan women have been actively protesting against the Taliban’s policies, including engaging in hunger strikes, to defend their rights.

J&K Lt Governor Flags Off CRPF Women Bike Expedition ‘Yashasvini’ From Srinagar

In a groundbreaking initiative to empower women, the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) kick-started an all-female bikers’ expedition rally named ‘Yashasvini‘ from Srinagar to Gujarat on Tuesday. The rally, an ode to women empowerment, was flagged off from the iconic Ghanta Ghar near the city center of Lal Chowk in Srinagar. The esteemed guest who inaugurated this remarkable journey was the Lieutenant Governor of Jammu and Kashmir, Manoj Sinha.

A Cross-Country Adventure

This all-female cross-country bike rally is not just an ordinary road trip; it’s a testament to determination and strength. Covering a staggering distance of 2134 kilometers, the rally will traverse through 40 districts, spanning across 15 states and Union Territories. The expedition aims to culminate in Ekta Nagar, Gujarat, on October 31st, coinciding with the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Throughout this exhilarating journey, a series of events promoting women’s empowerment have been meticulously planned.

Saluting the ‘Veeranganas’ of CRPF

In his address during the flag-off ceremony, Lieutenant Governor Manoj Sinha paid heartfelt tribute to the exceptional bravery, determination, and courage exhibited by the ‘Veeranganas‘ of CRPF in various challenging situations. He emphasized that the ‘Yashasvini‘ women bike expedition by the ‘Veeranganas‘ serves as a powerful symbol of resilience and the strength of Nari Shakti (women power). It is a testament to the sacrifices made by women, their unwavering self-confidence, and their ability to achieve remarkable milestones in diverse fields through grit, determination, and dedication.

Commitment to Women’s Empowerment

Manoj Sinha reiterated the commitment and topmost priority of the Jammu and Kashmir administration to empower and grant full rights to Nari Shakti. He proudly acknowledged the success stories of daughters who are excelling in academics, research, innovation, and the business sector, ultimately contributing to the aspirations of society. Nari Shakti is not only playing a pivotal role in the developmental journey of Jammu and Kashmir but also making significant contributions to the vision of a developed India (Viksit Bharat).

A Collaborative Endeavor

The cross-country bike expedition is a collaborative effort between the CRPF and the Ministry of Women and Child Development. It aims to celebrate and showcase the indomitable women power that exists in our country. This partnership signifies a united front in promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment.

Impactful Interactions Along the Way

During this incredible journey, the three teams from Srinagar, Shillong, and Kanyakumari will engage with various target groups as part of the “Beti Bachao Beti Padhao” initiative. They will interact with school children and college girls, women self-help groups, cadets of the National Cadet Corps (NCC), children of Child Care Institutions (CCIs), National Youth Corps (NYKS) members, adolescents, and anganwadi workers. These interactions aim to inspire and empower women across diverse age groups and backgrounds.

Empowering Women: Riding Towards Gender Equality

This initiative showcases the commitment of the government and various organizations to promote women’s empowerment and gender equality. As the bikers navigate the diverse landscapes of India, they inspire and empower women from all walks of life, sending a powerful message that women can achieve anything they set their minds to.

ICC Names Sachin Tendulkar As ‘Global Ambassador’ for ODI World Cup 2023

The International Cricket Council (ICC) has made an exciting announcement on Tuesday, designating the legendary cricketer Sachin Tendulkar as the ‘Global Ambassador‘ for the highly anticipated Cricket World Cup 2023. This prestigious event is scheduled to kick off tomorrow in the vibrant city of Ahmedabad, India.

A Living Legend Takes the Center Stage

Sachin Tendulkar, who has etched his name into the annals of cricket history, holds the record for participating in six 50-over World Cups. His association with this global cricketing spectacle goes back decades, from being a ball boy in 1987 to donning the Indian jersey in numerous editions. Sachin’s legacy and his passion for the game make him the perfect choice to unveil the World Cup trophy before the inaugural match.

Opening the Tournament in Style

The Cricket World Cup 2023 will officially commence with a grand ceremony before the first match between England and New Zealand. Sachin Tendulkar’s presence on this occasion will undoubtedly add a touch of cricketing magic, marking the beginning of what promises to be a thrilling tournament.

A Star-Studded Ambassadorial Lineup

In addition to Sachin Tendulkar, the ICC has assembled an impressive group of cricketing legends to serve as ambassadors for the World Cup 2023. This eclectic mix includes West Indies’ icon Vivian Richards, South Africa’s cricketing maestro AB de Villiers, England’s World Cup-winning captain Eoin Morgan, Australia’s formidable Aaron Finch, Sri Lanka’s spin wizard Muttiah Muralitharan, New Zealand’s stalwart Ross Taylor, India’s charismatic Suresh Raina, former captain Mithali Raj, and Pakistan’s versatile all-rounder Mohammad Hafeez.

The Countdown Begins

The ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup 2023 is all set to kick off on October 5, with defending champions England facing off against New Zealand at the Narendra Modi Stadium in Ahmedabad. Over the course of the tournament, 48 matches will be played across 10 venues, building up to the grand finale on November 19 in the world’s largest cricket stadium. As the cricketing world converges in India for this spectacle, fans can’t wait to witness the magic unfold on the field. Sachin Tendulkar’s role as the ‘Global Ambassador’ will undoubtedly add to the fervor and excitement surrounding this prestigious event.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2023 awarded to Moungi G. Bawendi, Louis E. Brus and Alexei I. Ekimov

Moungi G. Bawendi, Louis E. Brus and Alexei I. Ekimov “for the discovery and synthesis of quantum dots”. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2023 rewards the discovery and development of quantum dots, nanoparticles so tiny that their size determines their properties. These smallest components of nanotechnology now spread their light from televisions and LED lamps, and can also guide surgeons when they remove tumour tissue, among many other things. The Nobel Prize amount for 2023 is set at Swedish kronor (SEK) 11.0 million per full Nobel Prize.

Everyone who studies chemistry learns that an element’s properties are governed by how many electrons it has. However, when matter shrinks to nano-dimensions quantum phenomena arise; these are governed by the size of the matter. The Nobel Laureates in Chemistry 2023 have succeeded in producing particles so small that their properties are determined by quantum phenomena. The particles, which are called quantum dots, are now of great importance in nanotechnology.

What is Quantum dots?

Quantum dots now illuminate computer monitors and television screens based on QLED technology. They also add nuance to the light of some LED lamps, and biochemists and doctors use them to map biological tissue.

Quantum dots are thus bringing the greatest benefit to humankind. Researchers believe that in the future they could contribute to flexible electronics, tiny sensors, thinner solar cells and encrypted quantum communication – so we have just started exploring the potential of these tiny particles.

About the Moungi G. Bawendi, Louis E. Brus and Alexei I. Ekimov

  • Moungi G. Bawendi

Moungi G. Bawendi, born 1961 in Paris, France. PhD 1988 from University of Chicago, IL, USA. Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA.

  • Louis E. Brus

Louis E. Brus, born 1943 in Cleveland, OH, USA. PhD 1969 from Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Professor at Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

  • Alexei I. Ekimov

Alexei I. Ekimov, born 1945 in the former USSR. PhD 1974 from Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Saint Petersburg, Russia. Formerly Chief Scientist at Nanocrystals Technology Inc., New York, NY, USA.

About the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded 114 times to 191 Nobel Prize laureates between 1901 and 2022. Frederick Sanger and Barry Sharpless have both been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry twice. This means that a total of 189 individuals have received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Click on the links to get more information.

The Nobel Prize medal in chemistry was designed by Swedish sculptor and engraver Erik Lindberg and represents Nature in the form of a goddess resembling Isis, emerging from the clouds and holding in her arms a cornucopia. The veil which covers her cold and austere face is held up by the Genius of Science.

Youngest chemistry laureate

To date, the youngest Nobel Prize laureate in chemistry is Frédéric Joliot, who was 35 years old when he was awarded the chemistry prize in 1935, together with his wife, Irène Joliot-Curie.

Oldest chemistry laureate

The oldest Nobel Prize laureate in chemistry to date is John B. Goodenough, who was 97 years old when he was awarded the chemistry prize in 2019. He is also the oldest laureate to be awarded in all prize categories.


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